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Pulmonary Circulation. Conus arteriosus Superior end of the right ventricle Leads to the Pulmonary Trunk Pulmonary Trunk Divides into Left and Right Pulmonary Arteries Blood flow: Right Ventricle -> Pulmonary Trunk through the Pulmonary S emilunar Valve (PSL Valve)

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pulmonary circulation
Pulmonary Circulation
  • Conusarteriosus
    • Superior end of the right ventricle
    • Leads to the Pulmonary Trunk
  • Pulmonary Trunk
    • Divides into Left and Right Pulmonary Arteries
    • Blood flow:
      • Right Ventricle -> Pulmonary Trunk through the Pulmonary Semilunar Valve (PSL Valve)
    • Pulmonary valve has 3 Semilunar cusps
systemic circulation
Systemic Circulation
  • Blood leaves Left Ventricle through …
    • Aortic Semilunar Valve (ASL Valve) into Ascending Aorta
  • Ascending Aorta turns to the left into the …
    • Aortic arch and becomes the ….
    • Descending Aorta
systemic circulation1
Systemic Circulation
  • Structural Differences between the Left & the Right Ventricle:
    • Left Ventricle
      • Round
      • Thicker myocardium wall -> more pressure
    • Right Ventricle
      • Pouch shaped
      • Thinner myocardium wall -> less pressure
coronary sinus
Coronary Sinus
  • Cardiac veins return blood to coronary sinus
  • Cardiac sinus opens into Right Atrium
writing activity 10 points
Writing Activity (10 points)
  • You are a Erythrocyte (RBC) traveling through the human body. Describe the journey!
  • Condition in lungs for O2 pick up
  • Heart: atria, ventricles, 4 valves
  • Systemic pathway
  • Pulmonary pathway
  • Conditions of tissue for O2 dispersal & CO2 pick up
  • 2 Bonus points: if all possible names for valves are given
    • Example: Atrioventricular valve, Mitral valve, …
foramen ovale
Foramen Ovale
  • Before Birth; an opening through the Interatrial Septum
    • Connects the two Atria
    • Eliminates blood being sent to the lungs in a Fetus!!
  • Seals off at birth -> Fossa Ovalis
  • Blue Baby
    • Foramen ovale does not deal off after birth
    • Requires surgery
heart valves
Heart Valves

Tricuspid Valve

Bicuspid Valve

Mitral Valve

Pulmonary Semilunar Valve

Left AV valve:

Bicuspid valve

Mitral valve

Right AV Valve:

Tricuspid

Aortic Semilunar Valve

Pulmonary Semilunar Valve

Aortic Semilunar Valve

cardiac conduction
Cardiac Conduction
  • Heart Beat
    • A single contraction of the heart
  • The entire heart contracts in sequence
    • Atria
    • Ventricles
cardiac conduction1
Cardiac Conduction
  • Structures of the Conducting System
    • Sinoatrial (SA) nodes
      • In the wall of the Right Atrium
    • Atrioventricular (AV) node
      • Between Atrium & Ventricle
    • Conducting Cells
      • Throughout myocardium
the cardiac cycle
The Cardiac Cycle
  • Begins at the Sinoatrial ( SA) Node with an Action Potential
  • The Action Potential is transmitted through the conducting System:
      • SA node
      • AV node
  • Produces an Action Potential in the Cardiac muscle cells
      • Contractile cells
5 steps to the cardiac cycle
5 Steps to the Cardiac Cycle:
  • Ventricular diastole
  • Atrial systole begins
  • Atrial diastole
  • Ventricular systole 1st phase
  • Ventricular systole 2nd phase

Diastole = Relaxation

Systole = Contraction

5 steps to the cardiac cycle1
5 Steps to the Cardiac Cycle:
  • Ventricular diastole
    • All chambers are relaxed

Diastole = Relaxation

Systole = Contraction

5 steps to the cardiac cycle2
5 Steps to the Cardiac Cycle:
  • Atrial systole begins
      • Atria contract & force blood into ventricles

Diastole = Relaxation

Systole = Contraction

5 steps to the cardiac cycle3
5 Steps to the Cardiac Cycle:
  • Atrial diastole
      • Atrium contraction ends
      • Atrium relaxes
      • Ventricle contractions begin

Diastole = Relaxation

Systole = Contraction

5 steps to the cardiac cycle4
5 Steps to the Cardiac Cycle:
  • Ventricular systole 1st phase
      • Contraction pushes AV valves close

Diastole = Relaxation

Systole = Contraction

5 steps to the cardiac cycle5
5 Steps to the Cardiac Cycle:
  • Ventricular systole 2nd phase
      • Increase in pressure forces SL valves to open
      • Blood is ejected

Diastole = Relaxation

Systole = Contraction

5 steps to the cardiac cycle6
5 Steps to the Cardiac Cycle:
  • Ventricular diastole
  • Atrial systole begins
  • Atrial diastole
  • Ventricular systole 1st phase
  • Ventricular systole 2nd phase

Diastole = Relaxation

Systole = Contraction

sinoatrial sa node
Sinoatrial (SA) Node
  • Pacemaker of the heart
  • Initiates heart beak
  • Sends excitatory impulses every 0.85 seconds
  • Contracts:
    • Atrium
  • Impulse is send to AV node
atrioventricular av node
Atrioventricular (AV) Node
  • Sends impulses to AV bundles
  • Bundles branch into Purkinje fibers
  • Cause ventricle to contract
cardiac cycle review
Cardiac Cycle - Review
  • Is the period between the start of one heartbeat and the beginning of the next
  • Includes contraction & relaxation with the Atria & Ventricle
    • Systole
      • Contraction
    • Diastole
      • relaxation
phases of the cardiac cycle
Phases of the Cardiac Cycle

Atrial systole

Atrial diastole

Ventricular systole

phase 1

Ventricular diastole

Ventricular systole

phase 2

cardio dynamics
Cardio dynamics

Vagus Nerve (Cranial Nerve X) carries fibers to the heart

  • Cardiac center is in the Medulla Oblongata
  • Cardio acceleration is controlled by the sympathetic neurons
  • Cardio inhibition is controlled by the parasympathetic neurons