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Key Question:. How are Cities Organized, and How do they Function?. Urban Morphology The layout of a city, its physical form an structure. Berlin, Germany With wall (above) And without wall (right). What does the urban morphology of the city tell us about the city?. Functional Zonation

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slide2
Urban Morphology

The layout of a city, its physical form an structure.

Berlin, Germany

With wall (above)

And without wall (right)

What does the urban morphology of the city tell us about the city?

slide3
Functional Zonation

The division of the city into certain regions (zones) for certain purposes (functions).

Cairo, Egypt

Central city (above)

Housing projects (right)

What does the functional zonation of the city tell us about the city?

zones of the city
Zones of the City
  • Central business district (CBD)
  • Central City (the CBD + older housing zones)
  • Suburb (outlying, functionally uniform zone outside of the central city)
modeling the north american city
Modeling the North American City
  • Concentric zone model (Ernest Burgess)
  • Sector model (Homer Hoyt)
  • Multiple Nuclei Model

(Chauncy Harris and Edward Ullman)

concentric zone model
Concentric zone model
  • A model with five zones.
    • Zone 1
      • The central business district (CBD)
      • Extension of trolley lines had a lot to do with this pattern)

- Zone 2

      • Characterized by mixed pattern of industrial and residential land use
      • Often includes slums and skid rows, many ethnic ghettos began here
      • Usually called the transition zone
concentric zone model1
Concentric zone model
  • A model with five zones.
    • Zone 3
      • The “workingmen’s quarters”
      • Solid blue-collar, located close to factories of zones 1 and 2
      • More stable than the transition zone around the CBD
      • Often characterized by ethnic neighborhoods — blocks of immigrants who broke free from the ghettos
      • Spreading outward because of pressure from transition zone and because blue-collar workers demanded better housing
concentric zone model2
Concentric zone model
  • A model with five zones.
    • Zone 4
      • Middle class area of “better housing”
      • Established city dwellers, many of whom moved outward with the first streetcar network
      • Commute to work in the CBD
    • Zone 5
      • Consists of higher-income families clustered together in older suburbs
concentric zone model3
Concentric zone model
  • Theory represented the American city in a new stage of development
    • Before the 1870s, cities such as New York had mixed neighborhoods where merchants’ stores and sweatshop factories were intermingled with mansions and hovels
    • Rich and poor, immigrant and native-born, rubbed shoulders in the same neighborhoods
concentric zone model4
Concentric zone model
  • In Chicago, Burgess’s home town, the great fire of 1871 leveled the core
    • The result of rebuilding was a more explicit social patterning
    • Chicago became a segregated city with a concentric pattern
    • This was the city Burgess used for his model
    • The actual map of the residential area does not exactly match his simplified concentric zones
sector model
Sector model
  • Maintained high-rent districts were instrumental in shaping land-use structure of the city
  • Because these areas were reinforced by transportation routes, the pattern of their development was one of sectors or wedges
sector model1
Sector model
  • As high-rent sectors develop, areas between them are filled in
    • Middle-rent areas move directly next to them, drawing on their prestige
    • Low-rent areas fill remaining areas
    • Moving away from major routes of travel, rents go from high to low
  • There are distinct patterns in today’s cities that echo Hoyt’s model
  • He had the advantage of writing later than Burgess — in the age of the automobile
sector model3
Sector model
  • Today, major transportation arteries are generally freeways
    • Surrounding areas are often low-rent districts
    • Contrary to Hoyt’s theory
    • Freeways were imposed on existing urban pattern
    • Often built through low-rent areas where land was cheaper and political opposition was less
multiple nuclei model
Multiple nuclei model
  • The CBD was not the sole generator of change
  • Rooted their model in four geographic principles
    • Certain activities require highly specialized facilities
      • Accessible transportation for a factory
      • Large areas of open land for a housing tract
    • Certain activities cluster because they profit from mutual association
    • Certain activities repel each other and will not be found in the same area
    • Certain activities could not make a profit if they paid the high rent of the most desirable locations
latin american model
Latin American model
  • More complex because of influence of local cultures on urban development
  • Difficult to group cities of the developing world into one or two comprehensive models
latin american model1
Latin American model
  • In contrast to today’s cities in the U.S., the CBDs of Latin American cities are vibrant, dynamic, and increasingly specialized
    • A reliance on public transit that serves the central city
    • Existence of a large and relatively affluent population closest to CBD
  • Inner-city zone of maturity
    • Less prestigious collection of traditional colonial homes and upgraded self-built homes
    • Homes occupied by people unable to participate in the spine/sector
    • Area of upward mobility
latin american model2
Latin American model
  • Inner-city zone of maturity
    • Less prestigious collection of traditional colonial homes and upgraded self-built homes
    • Homes occupied by people unable to participate in the spine/sector
    • Area of upward mobility
latin american model3
Latin American model
  • Zone of accretion
    • Diverse collection of housing types, sizes, and quality
    • Transition between zone of maturity and next zone
    • Area of ongoing construction and change
    • Some neighborhoods have city-provided utilities
    • Other blocks must rely on water and butane delivery trucks for essential services
latin american model4
Latin American model
  • Zone of peripheral squatter settlements
    • Where most recent migrants are found
    • Fringe contrasts with affluent and comfortable suburbs that ring North American cities
    • Houses often built from scavenged materials
    • Gives the appearance of a refugee camp
latin american model5
Latin American model
  • Zone of peripheral squatter settlements
    • Surrounded by landscape bare of vegetation that was cut for fuel and building materials
    • Streets unpaved, open trenches carry wastes, residents carry water from long distances, electricity is often “pirated”
    • Residents who work have a long commute
    • Many are transformed through time into permanent neighborhoods
edge cities
Edge Cities

Suburban downtowns, often located near key freeway intersections, often with:

- office complexes

- shopping centers

- hotels

- restaurants

- entertainment facilities

- sports complexes

urban realms model
Urban Realms Model

Each realm is a separate economic, social and political entity that is linked together to form a larger metro framework.

modeling the cities of the global periphery and semiperiphery
Modeling the Cities of the Global Periphery and Semiperiphery
  • Latin American City (Griffin-Ford model)
  • African City (de Blij model)
  • Southeast Asian City (McGee model)
slide38

Employing the concepts defined in this section of the chapter, draw a model of the city with which you are most familiar. Label each section of the city accordingly. After reading through the models described in this section, determine which model best corresponds to the model you drew and hypothesize why it is so.