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A.P. U.S. History Mr. Krueger. Secession and the Civil War. Lincoln. Born 1809 to poor illiterate parents –Self educated 1831 settled in New Salem, and made a living as a Surveyor – Shopkeeper – Postmaster Found some success in law and politics

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  • Born 1809 to poor illiterate parents –Self educated
    • 1831 settled in New Salem, and made a living as a Surveyor – Shopkeeper – Postmaster
    • Found some success in law and politics
    • Became a leader of the Whig Party and a lawyer in Illinois
    • Served one term in Congress (1847-1849)
  • Believed slavery should be tolerated because it was protected by the constitution
  • He attacked Douglas’ popular sovereignty because it allowed for slavery expansion.
  • He joined the Republicans and became the presidential candidate in 1860 – he was adept in party leadership.
  • Lincoln held the party together by: Persuasion, Patronage, Flexible Policy Making.
    • Lincoln identified with the Northern cause and could inspire others to make sacrifices for it.
  • “The Civil War put on trial the very principle of democracy at a time when European nations rejected political liberalism, and accepted the conservative views that popular government would collapse into anarchy.”
the storm gathers
The Storm Gathers
  • Lincoln’s election led to the secession of 7 states.
  • This did not lead directly to war.
  • For this to happen:
    • A final compromise effort must fail.
    • The North must make a final decision to maintain the Union by military action.
  • All realized that when the guns blazed at Fort Sumter that this would be resolved on the battlefield.
the deep south secedes
The Deep South Secedes
  • South Carolina was the 1st to secede
    • Pro-slavery
    • Southern Rights
    • December 20, 1860 – S. Carolina dissolved itself from the Union.
    • Justification – They charged that a sectional party had elected a president whose opinions and purposes were hostile to slavery.
  • By Feb. 1st – 7 states seceded: S. Carolina, Alabama, Mississippi, Florida, Texas, Louisiana, Georgia
  • Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas immediate secession was unnecessary due to Lincoln’s election
    • Whigs maintained influence here during sectional crisis
    • More willing to compromise because they were tied to the North
    • Cooperationists – wanted the south to act as an entirety.
the montgomery convention
The Montgomery Convention
  • Without the border states, delegates of the Deep South met in Montgomery, Alabama (Feb. 4th) to establish the Confederate States of America (CSA).
  • The convention acted as a provisional government while drafting a permanent constitution.
  • They take a moderate approach
    • Ideas voted down:
      • Reopen Atlantic Slave Trade
      • Abolish 3/5th compromise and count all slaves
      • Prohibit the admission of free states to the new confederacy
the montgomery convention1
The Montgomery Convention
  • The central government was denied the right to:
    • Impose protective tariffs
    • Subsidize internal improvements
    • Interfere with slavery in the states
  • Similar to the US Constitution – but with traditional southern interpretations
  • It was required to pass laws protecting slavery in the territories
    • Jefferson Davis (Mass.) – President
    • Alexander Stephens (Georgia) – V.P.
  • Radicals were denied positions of authority, and moderate views were taken to draw in the border states.
  • Lincoln’s election developed southern fears that the north wouldn’t leave slavery alone.
goals of the csa
Goals of the CSA
  • The Montgomery Convention showed that the goal was not to create a slave holder utopia, but to recreate the Union prior to the Republican party. Secession was a last resort.
  • The decision to allow free states into the CSA showed moderation. It was a very conservative revolution.
  • The only justification for southern independence was the “peculiar institution”
  • Vice president Stephens states “that the Negro is not equal to the white man, that slavery subordination to the superior race is a natural condition.”
failure of compromise
Failure of Compromise
  • Deep South sought independence – the moderate northerners and border slave states sought compromise.
  • Dec. 1860 – Sen. John Crittenden of Kentucky presented a plan: Extend the Missouri Compromise line to the Pacific
    • It would protect slavery in the territories south of the line
    • Federal compensation to the owners of escaped slaves
    • Constitutional Amendment that would forever prohibit the fed. Gov. from interfering with slavery
  • Initially, the Republicans showed a willingness to listen
  • Lincoln was strongly opposed to the slavery line extension (as strong as an oak)
  • Congress then voted the plan down
  • Congressmen in seceding states also voted it down
lincoln s fault
Lincoln’s Fault?
  • Historians generally blame Lincoln for the unnecessary war, because he would not support the compromise.
  • But it’s believed the approval of the compromise wouldn’t have halted the Deep South from seceding.
  • Lincoln felt that extending the Missouri Compromise to the Pacific wouldn’t halt the agitation for extending slavery to the new territories.
  • They felt the only solution to the house divide was to remove the chance of slavery expansion.
  • In his Inaugural Address (March 4, 1861) he stated many patriotic men urged him to accept the compromise, that would shift the ground on which he was elected. Lincoln said it signified that an elected President can’t be inaugurated until he betrays those that elected him.
and the war came
And the War Came…
  • By Lincoln’s Inauguration:
    • 7 states seceded
    • They formed an Independent Confederacy
    • Seized many Fed. Forts in the Deep South – all accomplished without firing a single shot
  • Commercial trade with the south was important, but some felt we were better off with the Deep South gone
  • By March public opinion shifted to strong action to preserve the Union
  • Business now put most of its weight behind coercive measures – reasoning – temporary loss of commerce was better than a permanent loss of the south as a market, and raw materials.
  • Lincoln called for cautions and limited use of force. He would defend un-captured forts in the South. This shifted the beginning of hostilities on the south.
it hit the fans
…it hit the fans….
  • Lincoln knew Fort Sumter must be reinforced – his cabinet felt it was indefensible
    • Sec. of State William Seward informed the Confederacy of the indefensible fort
    • Lincoln ordered supplies and provisions sent to Fort Sumter – sent word to the gov. of S. Carolina
    • (Apr. 8-9) The Confederate authorities felt the resupplying of F. Sumter was a hostile act and attacked (Apr. 12)
    • Union Forces surrendered under Major Robert Anderson, the Confederate Flag was raised.
    • The south assumed responsibility for firing the 1st shot.
more secession
More Secession
  • Lincoln called for a militia of the loyal states to provide 75,000 volunteers
  • Two days later Virginia joined the Confederacy
    • In the next 5 weeks – Arkansas, Tennessee, N. Carolina followed Virginia
    • They had been unwilling to secede due to Lincoln’s election, but when he asked for troops they were forced to choose a side.
    • They believed secession was a constitutional right and were quick to cut ties to the Union
  • In the north, the firing on Fort Sumter proved to unite the Union
  • The CSA moved its capital from Montgomery to Richmond
  • In the border states of Maryland, Delaware, Kentucky, and Missouri – secession was stopped by local unionism and federal intervention.
    • Maryland was kept in the Union by Martial Law
    • Missouri experienced brutal and bloody guerilla fighting – very unsafe place.
what was the civil war
What was the Civil War?
  • Not just a struggle between free and slave states…
    • More than anything conflicting views on the right of secession determined the ultimate division of states, and the choice of people in areas where sentiments were divided
    • Robert E. Lee was not a:
      • Defender of Slavery
      • Southern Nationalist
    • Lee went south because he was a loyal son to a sovereign state
    • General George Thomas (VA) chose the Union because he felt it to be indissoluble
  • The two sides would define the war less as a struggle over slavery than as a contest to determine whether the union was undividable
adjusting to total war
Adjusting to Total War
  • The Civil War was “total war”
  • It was a long war because the south put up a “hell” of a fight
  • Total war tests societies, economies, and political systems
  • Also, a battle of wits between generals and military strategists
prospects plans and expectations
Prospects, Plans, and Expectations
  • North Advantage – Population, Industries, Railroads
  • South Advantage – Defend its territory, Could choose the timing/place for battle, Familiar with terrain
  • The North had to invade and conquer, the South could define its cause as protecting boundaries
  • South expected/assumed:
    • Their armies to be better fed
    • Support from England and France because of cotton market
  • South – Offensive defense
  • North – Anaconda Plan – like a boa constrictor, squeeze the south into submission
    • Blockade southern ports
    • Seize control of the Mississippi River
    • Cut off food supply and other commodities
    • Lincoln decides on a two front war
      • Pressure Virginia
      • Advance down the M. River Valley to isolate Texas and Louisiana
    • Problems: North lacked superior military leadership
  • At the beginning both sides had more volunteers then could be outfitted and armed
  • Recruiting was done by states – they were reluctant to give up forces
    • CSA passes Conscription Law (1862)
    • Lincoln set quotas – if not met a draft followed
  • War materials produced by private industries
  • South had problems:
    • Weak industrial base – needed outside help
    • Relied on cash government programs to get needed materials
    • Agriculture could not meet the demands of total war
  • Both sides had financial problems
    • Taxes, selling war bonds, printing more money (paper)
political leadership
Political Leadership
  • Both Constitutions made the President Commander and Chief, politics persisted
    • Elections, Influence of parties and factions
  • Lincoln was bold in assuming new executive powers
    • Expanded the army
    • Advanced public money to private individuals
    • 1861 – declared martial law
    • Suspended habeas corpus between Philadelphia and Washington
    • Lincoln believed this power was necessary
  • Davis was a weak war leader
    • Defined powers literally
    • Personally directed the army, but left policy making to the Confederate Congress
    • Played favorites with Confederate Leadership – two of the CSA’s best generals were denied assignments, while Braxton Bragg kept a major assignment
    • Gradually loses CSA support because he had no party backing
campaigns and battles discussion
Campaigns and Battles Discussion
  • Famous Battles?
    • Bull Run
    • Shiloh
    • The West
    • Antietam
    • Fredericksburg
    • Chancellorsville
    • Vicksburg
    • The Wilderness
    • Sherman’s March
    • Appomattox Court House
  • Major Roles
    • George McClellan
    • Ulysses S. Grant
    • Stonewall Jackson
    • Robert E. Lee
    • William T. Sherman
  • 1861 – Congress voted that the war was fought to preserve the Union, not to change the domestic institutions in any states
    • However, Congress authorized the government to confiscate the slaves of masters who supported the CSA
    • Lincoln favored freeing slaves, but not immediately
      • Prolonged Emancipation – did not want to alienate Union elements in the Border States
      • Drafted his speech, but would wait for a major victory so as to not seem desperate
      • After Antietam, his issued the Emancipation Proclamation – 100 days to give up the struggle without losing their slaves
      • CSA congress did not respond – Lincoln declared slaves officially free
      • Did not immediately free slaves, but committed the Union to abolition
  • About 25% of slave population gain freedom during the war
africans americans in war
Africans Americans in War
  • What was it like?
  • What did they have to do?
  • Views on this?
  • What about morale in North and South?
  • Riots? And Copperheads?
  • Lincoln vs. Booth on April 9 at the Fords Theater
effects of the war
Effects of the War
  • 618,000 victims of war due to enemy fire or disease
  • Women who served in the war now led reform movements for women
  • 4 million African Americans were emancipated from slavery wondering if they would be equal
  • North industries lost ground economically because prices rose faster than wages
  • Immigrants were optimistic because many had served in the war, this weakened Nativist sentiment
  • The war also decided that the federal government had power over the state
the end
The End?
  • Congress passed laws during the war to encourage business and agriculture – Republicans supported this.
    • High Tariffs, Homestead Act, National Bank
    • “Big Business”
  • Ralph Waldo Emerson wrote that the Civil War changed American thought.
    • Organization, government, and civilization over the deeds of private men
    • The North won because it was able to organize, innovate, and modernize better than the South
    • The age of science and technology will now follow