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Religious Wars and the Coming of the Khanate . 7.2 | The Crusades and the Mongols . The Seljuk Turks. Asiatic people who moved into the Middle East Conquer Baghdad 1058 | Convert to Islam Fresh blood in Islam’s veins Expansion – Byzantine Empire The Battle of Manzikert 1071 .

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religious wars and the coming of the khanate

Religious Wars and the Coming of the Khanate

7.2 | The Crusades and the Mongols

the seljuk turks
The Seljuk Turks

Asiatic people who moved into the Middle East

Conquer Baghdad 1058 | Convert to Islam

Fresh blood in Islam’s veins

Expansion – Byzantine Empire

The Battle of Manzikert 1071

alexius comnenus

Alexius Comnenus

Emerges from the civil wars after Manzikert – 1081

Reconquers territory – loss of Asia Minor

Appeal to Pope Urban II in 1094

Pope Urban II’s problems

god wills it

To bolster his support and legitimize rule, Urban travels to Clermont, France

  • Speech – Help Christian brothers in the East, reclaim Jerusalem
  • … and rally behind me – the true Pope – incentives promised
  • Common people flock to armies – organized by powerful barons
“God Wills It!”
crusaders at the gates
Crusaders at the Gates

Western European armies reach Constantinople - 1096

Alexius’ dilemma and compromise – Peter the Hermit

Crusaders in Asia Minor – The divisions of Islam

The Siege of Antioch – Stephan of Blois – The Battle of Antioch

The barons fight

jerusalem is taken

“It was necessary to pick one’s way over the bodies of men and horses… In the Temple and porch of Solomon, men rode in blood up to their knees and bridle reins… The city was filled with corpses and blood”

No problem. You like sherbet?

Listen, I’m sorry about all this

Jerusalem is Taken

1099 – Massacre of the entire population

Feudalism instituted in the “Holy Land” – fighting

Subsequent crusades to reinforce the Holy Land

1187 – Saladin conquers Jerusalem for Islam – Third Crusade

Richard the Lionhearted (E), Philip Augustus (F), Frederick Barbarossa (HRE) march off – stalemate

the folly of christianity
The Folly of Christianity

The Children’s Crusade

The Fourth Crusade’s Origins

Constantinople 1204

Crusades as a Political Tool – France and the Cathars (Albi)

china emerges from the warring states period 589 ad

China Emerges from the Warring States Period 589 AD

The Sui Dynasty takes control after 350 years of chaos

Centralization returns – efficient bureaucracy

The Grand Canal completed – trade and communication

Lots of peasants died though – rebellions

the tang dynasty 618 ad
The Tang Dynasty 618 AD

Prosperity and cultural achievement

Chinese influence spreads

Contended with Islam – Talas 752 AD

Expanded civil service exam and law code

Foreign trade increases with the economy

technological achievements

Movable type

  • Paper money
  • Porcelain
  • Gunpowder
  • Magnetic compass
  • Cotton clothing
  • Silk (duh)
  • Farming techniques = 100 million people (Song); rice; tea
Technological Achievements
song dynasty 960 ad
Song Dynasty 960 AD

Rebellions and corruption killed the Tang

Trend of efficient bureaucracy = success; inefficient = disaster

Song promoted cultural vibrancy = most advanced in the world

Extremely difficult CSE – scholar-officials

Issues with nomads to the north – the Great Wall

you ve been waiting for it

You’ve been waiting for it…

The Mongols

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=szxPar0BcMo

the great khanate

Genghis Khan (Great Khan) 1206 AD

    • Unifies Mongolian tribes
  • Conquers a massive empire – brutality and fear
  • The fracturing of the Khanate
    • The Golden Horde (Russia)
    • The Il-Khanate (old Persia)
    • The Chagatai Khanate (central Asia)
    • The Yuan Dynasty (China)
The Great Khanate
pax mongolica

PaxMongolica

Mongolian hegemony

Freedom of travel, trade, religion, and social mobility

The travels of Marco Polo to the court of Kublai Kahn c.1290

Trade flourishes… but so will the plague