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Networks on the Net. Monica Stoica, Boston University. Books used: Information Technology by David Cyganski, John Orr. Telephone system. Most of the existing telephone network was designed to provide a communications connection which is:

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networks on the net

Networks on the Net

Monica Stoica,

Boston University

Books used: Information Technology by David Cyganski, John Orr

telephone system
Telephone system
  • Most of the existing telephone network was designed to provide a communications connection which is:
  • Two-Way:Each party can speak to the other; that is, this is a system meant for conversation and not presentation or publication.
  • Real-Time: A delay in excess of about 1/3 of a second is disrupting to conversations, as it is a large enough a time period to be confused with vocal gestures (pause, doubt, surprise).
  • Pair wise:The conversation is an exchange between two people and not an open forum for anyone to join.
telephone system1
Telephone System
  • Circuit Switched Connection: Voice connections are set up and taken down frequently under control of the user (by dialing a number) as opposed to being permanent (in which case we would need a telephone in our house for each party to whom we ever intended to speak).
the tv system
The TV System
  • One-Way: The television programming provider sends its video product to your home and not vice versa.
  • Not Real-Time: As a viewer you don't really care or notice if the program you are watching is 10 seconds late or more. Because the communication is not two-way, there is no sense of delay, and hence the provider can use slow channels (satellites) or even manually mounted tape recordings to provide the video feed.
  • One-to-Many: The provider does not individually package and transmit TV shows to each user. A single launch of information is made of all the TV shows to all users.
tv system
TV System
  • Users, of course, can independently select which information in the information stream to show on their screens (and with some modern TV sets, several of these can be watched at the same time).
  • Permanent Connection: The connections between the provider and the users are not switched or directed. As noted above, the same information is transmitted on one network to all viewers. When the viewers switch channels, they are only selecting what part of the information to view and are not altering what is being sent.
circuit vs packet switch networks
Circuit vs. Packet Switch Networks
  • Circuit-based networks are those in which a path is maintained between the users for the duration of the call; and
  • Packet-based networks are those in which individually addressed packets of information are sent into a communications system, and are individually forwarded until they reach the recipient.
circuit network
Circuit Network
  • The circuit-based network with which the reader might be best acquainted is the telephone system. After a number has been dialed, a circuit is established. That is, a path has been created between your telephone and that of the person you called.
  • You can think of the telephone circuit and any other circuit-based network connection as a hollow tube running between two end points. Anything you drop in one end of the tube will come out the other end (for example, your voice in the case of the telephone network).
  • If you want to communicate with a second person, you need to establish a second circuit.
circuit networks
Circuit networks
  • The destination of your message is determined by the tube into which you drop the message. In the case of cable television networks (which are circuit-based) the provider drops the same messages into all the tubes.
packet switch networks
Packet Switch Networks
  • The packet-based network with which the reader is probably most acquainted is the postal system. To send a packet of information (a letter) to someone, you must put an address on an envelope. Then, you drop the letter into a mailbox.
  • This mailbox no longer acts like a tube following a single path to the destination. In fact, you can drop many messages with different addresses into the same mailbox and they will each be directed to the correct recipient, in stark contrast to the telephone example above. In fact, not only do you not need a separate box for each possible recipient, you can actually use any mailbox you find on any street to send the same piece of mail.
  • The telephone companies comprise what has commonly been called the Public Switched Telephone Network, or PSTN.
  • The PSTN has traditionally been in the business of providing temporary circuit-based connections on demand for voice communications.
  • One of the first and most popular digital permanent circuit services sold by the PSTN in North America was the so-called T1 carrier. This transmission system was devised originally to transport sets of 24 simultaneous digitized phone conversations over simple pairs of copper wire over distances of up to approximately 50 miles.
  • Repeaters were placed 6,000 feet apart along the path of the cable to regenerate the signal, which otherwise would suffer severe degradation due to cable losses.The overall bit rate of this digital data transmission system is 1.544 Mbps per channel.
  • It is typical telephone parlance to refer to the format of the digital signal involved in T1 transmission not as a T1 signal, but rather as a DS1 (Digital Services 1) signal, because this same format can be used on essentially any kind of cable.
  • Thus, T1 refers to both the physical medium (the twisted pair cable) and the DS1 format of the digital data being used to move the data on that cable.
t1 capacity
T1 capacity
  • The digitized voice telephone signals transmitted by a T1 carrier are represented by 8,000 samples per second quantized to 8 bits per sample. Actually, some of these data bits are ``stolen'' to provide synchronization information and ``signaling'' information, which is for routing the data at the various switch points.
  • Also, one additional bit is inserted into the stream for every 192 bits (24 voice channels bits), which is used to establish overall synchronization of the channels within the stream. Thus, 193 bits samples/sec= 1.544 Mbps are transmitted.
t1 in europe
T1 in Europe
  • The transmission hierarchy is different in Europe, where groups of 30 voice channels rather than 24 are the basis for the hierarchy.
  • In the late 1980s, the PSTN gave users direct access to a switched digital service. This service, which parallels the regular voice telephone network, became widely available in a form that has been named Integrated Services Digital Network,or ISDN.
  • However, for reasons of cost (high), data rate (not very high), and installation difficulties, ISDN has not been widely accepted, and will likely be eclipsed by cheaper and/or faster data transmission alternatives.
isdn bri
  • ISDN services are available in a number of versions with various cable connection types and bit rates. We will briefly discuss the two forms are now readily available in most larger cities throughout the world. In particular, we will discuss the formats used in North America.
  • ISDN BRI (basic rate interface) is available worldwide and offers a 192 kbps digital service divided in a fashion that separates it into one 16 kbps signaling data streams and two 64 kbps data streams that can be used as two computer data streams, two digital phone streams, or one of each. The BRI service is often called the 2B+D service,indicating that two ``B'' channels and one ``D'' channel are available on a single connection.
isdn bri1
  • ISDN BRI services are delivered via the local-loop wiring that had been used before to simply provide the analog telephone technology connection for your home and office phone.(Actually, not all existing telephone wiring is ``good enough'' to support these data rates, and the PSTN company with whom one contracts for ISDN service will test the lines prior to selling the service.)
  • Once ISDN services have been purchased, users can connect a special interface box to their telephone wall plate for connection to computers, printers, telephones, and so forth.
  • This device will support the call set-up function and allow users to enter (either on the front panel of the device or through a computer communications link and user interface software) the telephone number of another ISDN device anywhere in the PSTN.
  • Thus, just as with analog telephone service, many end points can be serviced from any one line. In fact, the two B channels can be dialed into two different end points simultaneously.
asynchronous transfer mode
Asynchronous Transfer Mode
  • ATM “squeezes” overhead out of the process of handling data streams by making the following concession: every packet (now called a cell) is of fixed size--53 bytes--with 48 bytes devoted to data and the remainder to addressing and controlling the virtual circuit.
  • By breaking the data into small cells it becomes possible to pack those cells into standardized cell-divided data streams, ``on-the-fly.'' Furthermore, the small cell size leads to a lessening of the storage needed in the store-and-forward architecture of the network.
  • we also abandon any guarantees of packet delivery and let the end-users apply their own techniques to recover from missing cells.
  • ATM-based virtual circuit packet transmission services for speeds up to 155 Mbps, are readily available from PSTN companies.
  • ATM equipment is now commercially available that handles data at 622 Mbps. And,new integrated circuit chips have also been previewed that handle ATM data rates up to 5Gbps.
packet switch
Packet Switch
  • packet-switching technology was developed that uses a special packet addressing scheme named the datagram.
  • The term datagram is derived from the word telegram. A telegram is an addressed letter that is transmitted electronically over several long distance hops into the local area of the destination. At that point a printed copy is rapidly and personally delivered by a special messenger service to the doorstep of the recipient.
  • That is, the idea behind the telegram was fast service, multiple retransmissions, and rapid direct delivery to a specified address.
  • Along the way, the movement and handling of themes sage was determined (much like mail) by the address on the telegram. At no time was an arrangement made for a future delivery (a connection). In fact, telegrams were used in the past not only when speed was needed,but also before the time of universal telephone and mail service.
  • Because no connections were made, it was also possible for the telegram service to discover that the telegram was undeliverable! In that case, a message was rapidly returned to the originator.
  • While a seeming disadvantage in these cases, the benefit is that most messages arrive more quickly because of the removal of interactions that would otherwise be needed.
  • Furthermore, the end station in the telegram service would often try several times to locate the recipient before giving up. Thus, the sender could be worrying about other communications rather than waiting for the destination availability to be verified.
  • A datagram is a packet of information that is self-contained.
  • That is, in addition to the message content itself, it contains the entire universal address of the sender and recipient.
  • These datagrams are then delivered on a``best effort'' basis. In other words, the delivery service takes responsibility forgetting it there, but will abandon the attempt after a certain amount of time has passed or a number of attempts at delivery have been made.
  • In the usual datagram implementation there is not even feedback in case of failed delivery.
  • The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) modified the specifications for Ethernet protocol and published it as IEEE Standard 802.3 in 1984.
  • The Ethernet was originally intended as a backbone for the operation of the office of the future. In such an office, no unnecessary paper changes hands, and paper is not used as the universal medium of exchange between office equipment. Instead,after a letter is typed and stored as data, that data could be transferred to a printer, a copier, an overhead projector, or to the archive file system.
  • To make such an office possible, it would be necessary for all office equipment manufacturers to absolutely agree upon data formats and to make equipment that could be pulled out of a box and instantly plugged into the network anywhere and without difficult administrative set-up by specially trained network technologists.
  • Compare to these ideals, Ethernet has not been successful.
  • Ethernet II provides means of transmitting 10 Mbps data streams among large numbers of computers distributed over a 2.5 km (1.5 mile) diameter area.
  • Later revisions of the Ethernet scheme have realized data speeds as high as 1 Gbps.
  • Next figure shows an Ethernet card and cabling in the original ``daisy chain'‘ configuration.
  • Preamble: An 8-byte sequence that is always the same. This acts as a flag that a receiving system can watch for and synchronize itself with, so that the body of the message can be properly identified.
  • The preamble provides an important protocol service: it stands out in a way that cannot be mistaken for any other part of a message. Every recipient knows what information to expect and in what order immediately after seeing the preamble.
  • Destination Address: A 6-byte address that uniquely identifies the recipient of the datagram from all recipients throughout the world. That's right: A 48-bit number is big enough that every computer can have its own address without overlap.
  • Source Address: Another 6-byte address that identifies the sender of the datagram.
  • Type Field: A 2-byte identifier of the type of handling that this datagram should receive by the recipient. There are groups that issue standards regarding how this number is used. For example, a type value of 0800 Hex identifies an Internet Protocol packet as would be generated by Internet-related services.
  • Data: From 46 to 1500 bytes of data intended for use by the destination system. This would contain perhaps a fragment of a picture being moved through the Web or a piece of text from an e-mail.
  • Frame Check Sequence: A 4-byte number constructed from processing of all the data that follows the preamble in a certain way. The chances that the same number would result from similarly processing an altered version of this data are very, very, small. Thus, the recipient can process the received data in the same way and check its FCS calculation with the one that was received. If they differ, the message can be discarded as being in error.
  • The Ethernet addresses, which are the key to datagram operation, are uniquely issued and permanently attached to Ethernet hardware (the piece of electronics in your computer that attaches to the network wire).
  • The IEEE was given the duty in January of 1986 to issue these addresses, which they renamed Organizationally Unique Identifiers (OUIs). Every manufacturer of Ethernet equipment submits a request to the IEEE, which grants the use of blocks of these addresses. The manufacturer then installs each address exactly once into each device manufactured. Thus, no two Ethernet devices ever built, share the same OUI. Hence, a datagram launched from one machine to another cannot be misdelivered.
  • With a 48 bit address size, there are approximately addresses available--that is, about 20,000,000 addresses per person on the face of the Earth.
  • Ethernet Local Area Network technology is based upon an efficient message delivery scheme (for small collections of computers) in which all messages are simply transmitted on a single shared cable and the unique addresses (names) on the datagram alert the desired recipient.
how to send
How to send
  • Imagine 30 people names who may each occasionally need to send information to another person from the group.
  • Suppose each person has a desk placed somewhere in a large room, but we don't tell anyone where they must sit and they occasionally change positions to get better window views or to sit closer to the coffee machine.
  • For this example, suppose the names of the people are Alice, Bob,Carol, and so on. Now, suppose Dave has a message for George. Dave could write a telegram, write George on the outside of the envelope, and hand it off to a delivery person who circulates the room.
  • The delivery person has no idea where anyone will be seated in general, so at each point in a delivery round, he has to check the nameplate on the desk and look through all the telegrams. Eventually every telegram gets delivered, but the system is not exactly fast.
  • Here's another approach to our delivery problem: Dave stands up and shouts ``George!'' and then reads the message (Figure 19.5). George receives the message instantly. Everyone else hears but ignores the message. The seating arrangement had no impact and all that mattered was that the names of the people were unique.
  • Of course, this delivery approach would have a problem if there were many more people in the room. With enough people trying to send telegrams in this way, at some point there will not be any empty time between shouts to add any more telegrams.
  • The Ethernet is based on exactly the scheme just described. All the computers in an Ethernet LAN are connected to a single piece of cable (it may be broken into smaller pieces for convenience, but these are hooked up to act like a single piece of wire).
  • When one computer wishes to send a message to another, it simply transmits the datagram by causing a variation of the voltage on the wire.This variation can be seen by all the computers attached to that wire. It is as if the computer shouted the telegram in a room (the cable) occupied by all the computers.
  • Thus we see that the uniqueness of the OUI addresses assigned to Ethernet hardware is essential to the proper operation of this networking scheme.
  • We also see that the single cable that connects all the computers is actually being shared by those computers. Thus, when a sufficient number of computers are connected to a single LAN, the network performance or perceived available bandwidth begins to drop.
  • We also see here one reason that LANs need to be kept relatively small in size.