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Source of water

Source of water

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Source of water

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  1. Source of water Surface source Sub surface or GW source Rivers and Streams Lakes Ponds Impounding reservoir Springs Wells Infiltration galleries Infiltration wells Artesian wells Dug wells Tube wells Shallow wells Deep wells Intake works Treatment works Plain sedimentation Sedimentation with coagulation Filtration Disinfection Miscellaneous treatment Distribution system Gravity system Pumping system Service reservoir Dual system Service main Branches Consumer Waste water

  2. Quality of water • Water during precipitation itself it carries some amount of physical, chemical, or biological impurities. • During the runoff also it pick up some dissolved particles of soil, garbage, sewage, pesticides, other human or animal waste or chemical. • During passage through the soil before joining water table though the water gets filtered out the suspended particles, some mineral may dissolve in it. • Note → Lesser amount of iron, calcium, magnesium, fluorine etc. are useful for drinking but larger amount make it unfit for drinking • Presence of toxic or poisonous substances such as arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, cyanides, lead, etc. →harmful even in very low quantities • Brackish water → presence of salts

  3. Quality of water - contd Analysis of water ↕ Physical Chemical Biological Radiological ↕ ↕ ↕ ↕ Turbidity Total solids Bacteria Radium 226 Colour pH value Viruses Radium 228 Taste and odour Hardness Plankton Radon Temperature chloride content Algae Uranium Specific conductivity Nitrogen content Fungi Gross alpha activity Metals and other chemical substance Dissolved gases

  4. Quality of wter-contd • Physical impurities • Turbidity →Dispersion of suspended solid particles such as clay, algae, fungi, minerals, organic and inorganic matters • Depends on concentration and fineness • Though not harmful →aesthetic and psychological effects • Measurements • Equipment → turbidity rod/Turbidimeter • Turbidity rod • When immersed in sample →Read aluminum rod when the platinum needle ceases to be seen • Unit →1mg finely divided silica dissolved in 1 litre of distilled water • Desirable below 5 units • Not objectionable up to 10 units

  5. Quality of wter-contd • Jackson’s turbidimeter (JTU scale) →Light path eg: 10.8cm-200JTU, 21.5cm -100JTU, 72.9cm -25 JTU • Lake water →25JTU • Turbid water →100 JTU • Disadvantage → Read up to 25 JTU • Baylis turbidimeter → Comparing sample and standard turbidity water • Commercial form → Nephlometer → NTU scale/FTU(Formazine)

  6. Quality of wter-contd • Colour →Due to presents of colloidal or dissolved organic matter such as coloured soil, micro organism, algae etc. • Though not harmful →aesthetic and psychological effects →not suitable for washing industry • Unit →1mg platinum cobalt dissolved in 1.litre of water (cobalt scale) • Measurements → comparing sample with tubes (Nessler tubes) containing standard solutions • For drinking water → • Preferable-less than 10 units and maximum up to 20 units • Commercial form → Tintometer

  7. Quality of wter-contd • Taste and odour→ Due to presents of dissolved organic /inorganic matter (salts) gases such as CH4, H2S, CO2 etc. combined with organic matter, minerals such as NaCl, Iron compound, carbonates and sulphates of other elements, phenols etc. also contribute. • Measurements → By odourintencity • Unit → Threshold odour number →Dilution ratio (The number of times the sample is diluted) • Eg: 20ml diluted to 100ml →Threshold odour number= 5 • Max: permissible value →3

  8. Quality of wter-contd • Temperature →Desirable value = 10°C and Objectionable →Above 25°C • Specific conductivity →The total amount of dissolved salts can be measured by sp. conductivity • Measurements → sp. conductivity can be measured by equipment called dionic water tester • Unit: Micro-Mho →1 amp. /1volts • Total dissolved salts = A constant (0.65 –depends on type of salt) * sp. Conductivity AT 25°C

  9. Quality of wter-contd • Chemical analysis   Total solids (suspended as well as dissolved solids) • Measurements → • Total solids→ evaporating the samples and weighing the residue • Suspended solids → Obtained by filtration • Dissolved solids → Total solid-Suspended solids • Desirable limits → 500-1000mg/lit

  10. Quality of wter-contd • pH value →Negative logarithm of H⁺ concentration • pH scale → ` pH =0 pH =7 pH =14 ↑ ↑ ↑ Max:acidity ←neutral water → max: alkalinity H₂O↔H⁺ + OH⁻ HCl ↔ H⁺ +Cl⁻ →Hydrogen ion concentration is more than 10^ - 7→ Acidic NaOH ↔ Na⁺ + OH⁻ → Hydroxyl ion concentration is more than 7→Alkaline

  11. Quality of wter-contd • Measurements → • Colorimetric method → Colour comparator • Electrolytic method → PH meter • Causes of alkalinity → • Bicarbonate alkalinity → Bicarbonates of calcium and magnesium • Carbonate alkalinity → Carbonate of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium • Hydroxide alkalinity → Hydroxide of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium • Causes of acidity→ Presents of mineral acids, free carbon dioxide, sulphate of Iron and Aluminum

  12. Quality of wter-contd • Hardness of water • It is the characteristics which prevents leathering of soap when used with water and usually due to the presence of calcium and magnesium salts. • Causes of hardness → • Temporary or carbonate hardness→ Due to the presents of carbonate and bicarbonate of calcium and magnesium → Removed by boiling • Noncarbonated or permanent hardness → Due to the presents of sulphate, chloride and nitrates of calcium and magnesium → Removed by special method of water softening

  13. Quality of wter-contd • Classification of hardness→ • Up to 75mg/lit → soft water • 75 -200mg/lit → moderately hard water • Above 200mg/lit → hard water • Desirable limit for drinking water → 75 to 115mg/lit • Problems due to hardness → • Greater soap consumption • Scaling of boiler • Corrosion and incrustation of pipes • Food tasteless

  14. Quality of wter-contd • Chlorides → Chlorides are generally present in water in the form of sodium chloride and may be due to the leaching of marine sedimentary deposits, pollution from sea water, industrial or domestic waste, etc. • Determined by titrating against std. silver nitrate solution with potassium chromate as indicator • Desirable limit →250mg/lit

  15. Quality of wter-contd • Nitrogen → • It is the indicates the presents of organic matter in the water and may occur in the following forms → • Free ammonia → • First stage of decomposition • It indicates recent pollution un (decomposed) • Max: limit =0.15mg/lit • Albuminoid/organic nitrogen → • Second stage of decomposition • Free nitrogen is first removed by boiling • Then adding strong alkaline solution of KMnO4 and boiled to collect ammonia liberated • Max: limit =0.30mg/lit

  16. Quality of wter-contd • Nitrites → • Partly decomposed stage of organic matter • Extremely dangerous • Presents not desirable • Determined by colour matching method → Sulphonic acid and naphthaminecolour and is matched with std. concentration • Nitrates → • Fully decomposed organic matter • Presents are harmless • Normal limit = 45mg/lit • Determined by colourmatcing method → Phynol-di-sulphonic acid and potassium hydroxide develop colour and is matched with std. concentration

  17. Quality of wter-contd • Metals and other chemical substances • Metals such as iron, manganese, copper, lead, barium, cadmium, arsenic, selenium, fluorine • Desirable limits → • Iron = 0.30mg/lit • Manganese = 0.05mg/lit • Copper → affects human lungs • Sulphate greater than 250mg/lit → laxative effects on human system

  18. Quality of wter-contd • Fluoride Greater than 1.5mg/lit, cause Fluorosis and less than 1mg/lit, cause dental carries • Dissolved gases • Nitrogen, methane, hydrogen sulphide, carbon dioxide, and oxygen • Methane and hydrogen sulphide, even in small extent is not permitted • Hydrogen sulphide → imparts taste and odour

  19. Quality of wter-contd • Biochemical oxygen demand → Oxygen consumed for 100% oxidation-prolonged process and 5 days BOD is determined • Determination → • Mix known volume of sample with known volume of distilled water saturated with known quantity of oxygen • 5 days incubation at 20°C • Determine the oxygen consumed by deducting the present quantity of oxygen from known quantity of oxygen • BOD5 → Oxygen consumed * dilution factor

  20. Quality of wter-contd • Living organism in water • Bacteria • Protozoa • Algae • Plankton • Funki • Viruses • Types of bacteria → • Pathogenic –Disease causing-Harmful • Eg: Salmonella typhi - Typhoid • Salmonella paratyphi – Paratyphoid • Vibrio cholera - Cholerae • Mycobacterium tuberculosis - Tuberculosis

  21. Quality of wter-contd • Non pathogenic – harmless - useful –decomposition etc. • Aerobic – Bacteria which can survive in presents of oxygen • Anaerobic - Bacteria which can survive in absents of oxygen • Facultative – Those which can survive with or without oxygen • Eg: Cocus → spherical • Diplococus → pairs • Streptococus → chain • Staphilococus → irregular colonies • Bacillius → rod like • Spirillum → spiral shaped • Vibro → curved

  22. Quality of wter-contd • Protozoa → • Unicellular animals • Eg: Amoeboid – irregular shape, naked or shelled, single or colonial • Fagellate – lash like appendages • Ciliat protozoa – hairlike appendages • Problems: Form scum, unsightly deposit on porcelain utensils

  23. Quality of wter-contd • Algae → • A type of plant, which grows in water and flourishes in presents of sunlight • Eg: Asterionella – Diatomaceae group • Volvox – chlorophyceae group • Anabaena – Cyanophyceae group • Problems: Taste and odour

  24. Quality of wter-contd • Plankton → microscopic plants and animal life that either swim or float in water and serve as food for small sea creature • Problems: Taste and odour, colour, problems on filter bed, stain on porcelain fixtures, dye works, photographic cells etc. • Fungi → Plants which grows without sunlight and live on other plants or animals • Eg: Toastools • Removal –Chlorine treatment • Viruses →small agents compared to bacteria and some are not visible even under microscope

  25. Quality of wter-contd • Analysis of bacteria → • Total count test, membrane filter technique and B-coli test • Total count → • Mix 1ml of sample in 99ml sterilized water • To diluted 1ml of sample, add 10ml of agar gelatin • Keep in incubator, 37°C for 24hrsor 20°C for 48 hrs • Count the number of colonies • Number of colonies * dilution factor – No. of bacteria per lit. of sample

  26. Quality of wter-contd • Membrane filter technique • Sample is filtered in specially designed filter paper (80% porosity, aperture size of 5-10mµ) • Culture the filter paper with”M Endo’s medium, 37°C for 24hrs • [M. End broth, LES Endo agar, 35°C, 20hrs – coli form group] and [M-Fc broth, 44.5°C, 22hrs – fecal coli form] • Count colonies which give the presents of bacteria

  27. Quality of water - contd • B-coli test → Presumptive and confirmed test • Presumptive test • Take diluted sample in standard fermentation tube with “lactose broth” as culture media • Keep in the incubator, 37°C-24-48hrs • If gas produced indicates B-coli • Confirmed test • A sample of presumptive test is taken in to another std. fermentation tube containing ‘brilliant green lactose brile ‘as medium • Keep in incubator, 37° • If colour is formed, confirms-B-coli

  28. QUANTITY OF WATER-MODULE-II • Before designing a water supply project, the water work Engineer should • Study or Survey about the demand of water • Study about availability(source) of water Let, V → Annual vol. of water → Annual avg. rate of draft → V/365 lit/day Annual avg. rate of draft per person /service→ Annual avg. rate of draft ÷ (No. of person/services) in lit /day

  29. QUANTITY OF WATER- CONTD Water supply project Survey of availability of water Analysis of demand of water Forecasting future population Analysis of percapita demand Total quantity of water

  30. QUANTITY OF WATER- CONTD • Percapita demand→ It is the annual average amount of daily water required by one person and includes, the domestic use, industrial and commercial use, public use, wastes and theft etc. and is given by→ • Total yearly water requirement of the city in litres ÷ (365 * Design population) • To determine percapita demand we have to find out various purposes for which water is to be used • Domestic • Industrial • Institutional • Commercial • Public • Fire demand • Loss & Waste

  31. QUANTITY OF WATER- CONTD • Domestic demand →IS: 1172-1993 • Cooking →5 lit • Drinking →5 lit • Bathing →75 lit • Washing of clothes →25 lit • Washing of utensils→15 lit • Gardening →15 lit • Washing of room →15lit • Flushing →45 lit • TOTAL→200 lit/person/ day • For low income group→135 lpcd • For high income group→250 lpcd

  32. QUANTITY OF WATER- CONTD • Industrial demand • It depends on • Nature & magnitude of Industries • Economic prosperity of the city • Size of city • Future expansion of both the city & industries • On the average→ 50 lpcd • Max → 450 lpcd • Note: Some industry may have their own water supply arrangements

  33. QUANTITY OF WATER- CONTD • Institutional & Commercial demand • Hospital, College, School, Railway station, Restaurant, Govt. offices etc. • On the average→20 lpcd • Max →50 lpcd • Public demand • The consumption for public parks, gardens, sprinkling & washing of road, Drinking, fountain etc.  • On the average→10 lpcd Or • 5% of total demand

  34. QUANTITY OF WATER- CONTD • Fire demand • The damages due to fire may depend upon many things such as size of city, commercial establishment, Industrial establishment, population density of the city. • A separate service reservoir is required to meet fire demand • Fire hydrants are provided in the distribution system100 to 150m apart • The minimum pressure should be about 10-15m of water (100-150KN/m²) • Minimum 3 water jets are required for a singlefire.→ • One for jetting on fired property • Other two on either sides each • the minimum discharge for one jet is →1100 lit/min

  35. QUANTITY OF WATER- CONTD • Problem: Estimate the quantity of water required for fire fighting for a city of 50 lakhs, if the number of fire per day is 6, with 3 hr duration • Quantity of water→ 6[3*1100*3*60] →35,64,000 lit/day Percapita demand→35,64,000/50,00,000→<1lit/day Though the percapita demand is negligible, the quantity of water influence the design of distribution system For population above 50,000→ Water in KL →√P*100 Where, P →population in thousands

  36. QUANTITY OF WATER- CONTD • Thumb rule for determination of fire demand. • Hatchling's formula • Q→3,182√P Where, Q →is in lit/min P →population in thousands • Freeman’s formula • Q→1136 [(P/10) + 10]

  37. QUANTITY OF WATER- CONTD • National Board of fireunderwriter’s formula. • When population below 2 lakhs Q→4637 √P [1-0.01√P] • When population more than 2 lakhs a provision of 54600 lit/minute, plus additional for second fire 9100-36400 lit/min • For Residential city • (a) Small or low building → 2200 lit/min • (b) Large or high building →4500 lit/min • (c) High Value apartments → 7650-13500 lit/min • Three storied building in densely built section→ up to 2700 lit/min • Three storied building in densely build section up to 27000 lit/min.

  38. QUANTITY OF WATER- CONTD • Buston’s formula Q→5663√P • Note: →In Indian condition, 2hr storage is considered in design of standby units • All the above formula not consider the type of city (Zoning) •   Actual , observed in Jabalpur city of India Q = 4360 R0.275 (t +12 ) 0.757 Where, Q → in lit/min • R →Recurrence internal of fire(depends on Zoning, min→1 year) • t →time duration in minute (min→30 mints)

  39. QUANTITY OF WATER- CONTD • Problem: The quantity of water required for fighting a fire of duration 2 hr with intervals of 3 years. t → 2 hr → 2 x 60 → 120 min R → 3 Q → 4360 R0.275 (t +12 ) 0.757 → 4360 x 30.275 (t +12 ) 0.757 =146.36 lit/min

  40. QUANTITY OF WATER- CONTD • Demand for loss and waste • Normally, this is assumed as 15% of the total consumption • Factors affecting losses • Water tight joints • Pressure in distribution line. • System of supply. • Metering • Unauthorized connection

  41. Quantity of water - contd • Factors affecting percapita demand • Climate condition →In summer season-more water requirements • Size of the city→ Cleaning, sewered city requires 5 times, Ind.&Comm. Estt., affluent rich family etc. • Industries →more industries more water • Habit of the people →Rich and upper class-more water • Cost of water→ High cost-less water

  42. Quantity of water - contd • System of supply →continues or intermittent • Policy of metering →min. tariff or based on consumption • Distribution pressure →High pressure-more loss (20-30m pressure→20-30% loss) • Quality of water →Best quality-more consumption • Sewerage→ more consumption

  43. Quantity of water - contd • Variation in demand • Hourly variation • Daily variation • Monthly variation • Seasonal Variation • Consider average daily demand → (q) • Max. hourly demand, 150% of the ave. value • Max. daily demand, 180% of the ave. daily→ • Max. monthly demand, 140% of the ave. value • Max. Seasonal demand, 130% of the ave. value • Total / Absolute max →[1.5*1.8*1.4*1.3] of ave. daily demand (q)

  44. Quantity of water - variation in demand

  45. Quantity of water - contd • Effects of variation in demand on capacity of various components • Source of Supply → Max. daily demand • Pumping main → Max. daily demand • Filter unit → Max. daily demand • Distribution → Max. hourly demand • Service reservoir → Max. hourly demand

  46. Quantity of water - contd • Problem: A water supply scheme is to be designed for a city having a population of 1 lakh. Estimate the important kinds of draft which may be required to be recorded for an avg. annual consumption of water. Also determine the required capacities of the major components of the proposed water supply projects using river as a source of supply. Assume suitable fig & data required.

  47. Quantity of water - contd • Solution   Percaptia demand → Domestic =200 lit /day Industrial =50 lit/day Institutional =20 lit/day Public purpose =10 lit/day Total =280 lit/day Loss and waste → 5% of 280 → 14 lit/day Grand total → 294 lit/day

  48. Quantity of water - contd Ave. daily demand → 294*1,00,000 → 29.4 Mld Max. daily demand → 1.8*29.4 →52.92 Mld Max. hourly demand → 1.8*1.5*29.4 → 79.38 Mld • Fire Demand Q = 4637√ P (1-0.01 √ P) = 4637 √100 (1-0.01 √100) = 41733 . lit/min = 41733 x 24 x 60 = 60095520 lit/day = 60 Mld

  49. Quantity of water - contd • The coincident demand may be taken as the highest of the following → • Max. daily demand + Fire demand or • Max. hourly demand Quantity → 52.92 Mld + 60Mld → 122. 92 Mld Or max. hourly demand → 79.38 Mld < 122.92 Mld • Coincident demand → 122.92 Mld