Medieval Europe 500-1500. Russell ’ s Rule to the Middle Ages:. Major questions about the Middle Ages (according to the regents) deal with: 1) Feudalism (weak central gov ’ t) 2) Rise and power of Catholic Church 3) The Crusades and the increase in trade. The Good and the Bad.
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Russell’s Rule to the Middle Ages: • Major questions about the Middle Ages (according to the regents) deal with: • 1) Feudalism (weak central gov’t) • 2) Rise and power of Catholic Church • 3) The Crusades and the increase in trade
Results of the Fall of Rome • Germanic invasions lead to fall of Roman Empire which also led to:
1) Breakdown of trade • Fear of bandits and without someone to “police” people stopped trading = Less money, Less power, more isolation
3) Population Shift • People move out of “center” of Civilization and begin moving to North and Countryside
4) Learning decreased • a. Germanic invaders were not educated leaving only priest and other high officials educated • b. People could not read ancient texts of Greeks or Romans (culture lost)
5) Loss of common language • a. Germanic people spoke different language leading to Latin changing in to different dialects such as Spanish and French • b. DIFFERENT LANGUAGES SEPARATE PEOPLE Homer says” Latin, who needs Latin? I’m never going to use Latin”
After the Fall of Rome, many people went searching for stability in everyday life, • Where do people search for stability? • - Individually • - Society
6) THE CHURCH!!!!!! Increase in power of RCC!
Life began to surround itself around the Church • Going to Church • Holidays • Behaviors
Education • Roman Catholic Church became source of education for many
The Arts • Mostly church related • Gothic Architecture • Flying Buttresses • Stained Glass
THE MEDIEVAL CHURCH Age of Faith: Gothic Architecture Economy: Monasteries and churches often had their own lands and produced food and wine with the help of the peasants.
Tithe • Tax by the Church, each person must give 1/10 income to Church • Another example of RCC increase in power.
This left Europe weak for many years until… • Life became chaos • Nothing was stable
Charlemagne (Charles the Great) • united Europe 771 ad • -created greatest empire since Ancient Rome • -Frank (German) King, 6’4 • -Spread Christianity • -Pope crowned him Emperor signifying alliance between Germans, Church, and former Roman Empire • Created Holy Roman Empire • 1st Reich • Died in 814
WEAK RULERS • Divided Empire amongst sons…too weak • Rulers that followed Charlemagne were weak and empire would be divided in 3 parts • -This lack of strong leadership lead to Feudalism in Europe • o Nobles often fought over power with one another • o Viking invasions also helped weaken rulers and villages
People searched for safety • Answer: Feudalism Remember Feudalism is the political term Manor system or manorialism is the economic term for this system
Without a strong central body of power keeping peace, people searched for security • Feudalism • King Lord Knight Peasant
OATH OF FEALTY VASSALS (lesser lords and knights) pledged their loyalty. THE BASIS OF MEDIEVAL ECONOMY WAS THE FIEF, OR PARCEL OF LAND GIVEN AFTER AN OATH OF LOYALTY IN EXCHANGE FOR SERVICES.
FEUDALISM • Kings were Relatively Weak • Decentralized political system LORDS, LAND, AND LOYALTY • Isolated, Self-Sufficient Manors • Lords and Nobles control the domain or fief • Oaths of Fealty to one’s liege lord • Land was the basis of wealth • Protection was exchanged for loyalty and land
SERFS AND SERFDOM Serfs were tied to the land. They could not leave, marry, etc. without the lord’s permission. A serf was at the bottom of the manor system. They worked the lord’s land, and often the church estates, and then could tend their own small plot of land they received in exchange for these services. SERFS ALSO GOT PROTECTION ! LABOR!! LAND!
Economics:MANORIALISM AGRARIAN TRADITIONAL ECONOMY
AGRARIAN MANORIALISM A SELF-SUFFICIENT ECONOMY BASED ON AGRICULTURE
THE MANOR HOUSE THE LORD’S HOUSE WAS THE BIGGEST ONE BUT OFTEN NOT VERY SANITARY. IF HE LIVED IN A CASTLE, IT WAS COLD AND DAMP. THE LORD HAD CONTROL OF ALL OF THOSE IN HIS DESMESNE (domain). THEY WORKED OR PROVIDE MILITARY SERVICES FOR HIM. HE PROTECTED THEM IN HIS CASTLE IN TIMES OF DANGER.
THE MANOR SYSTEM ANYTHING NOT PRODUCED ON THE LORD’S MANOR COULD BE BARTERED. MONEY WAS RARELY USED AFTER ROME’S EMPIRE COLLAPSED.
MEDIEVAL FARM TOOLS THE AX THE RAKE THE FLAIL
MEDIEVAL FARM TOOLS LONG HANDLED SCYTHE AND THE SICKLE
MEDIEVAL FARM TOOLS HAYMAKING FORK AND SPADE
THE 3 FIELD SYSTEM Gray - Woodlands; the building blocks of the manor. Green - The 3 Fields; crops were rotated each season on land owned by the Lord and worked by the serfs. Purple - The Lord's house, land and pond. Burnt Orange - The villager's homes. Yellow - Small plots of land serfs could work themselves for their own benefit. Blue - the stream used by all.
THE PLOUGH (PLOW) In the Middle Ages, three inventions would help increase food production:
HORSE HARNESS The Ox was a slow animal, but the ox harness was lethal to the horse. Once a new harness was designed, “horse power” was used.
WINDMILL WATERMILLS KEPT PEASANTS NEAR RIVERS. BUT THE WINDMILL EXPANDED WHERE GRAIN COULD BE GROUND.
What do these inventions mean • Increase food production • Increase population • Less people needed to farm
Knights • Soldiers of the Middle Ages • For a Fief, would pledge loyalty to defend Lords/Kings lands
Soldiers mounted on horseback Protect nobles or kings possessions MEDIEVAL TOURNAMENT IN THE LATER MIDDLE AGES, THERE WERE FEWER INVADERS SO KNIGHTS WOULD FIGHT IN ENTERTAINMENT CALLED TOURNAMENTS. CHIVALRY WAS THE IDEAL CODE OF HONOR THAT A KNIGHT SHOULD FIGHT, LIVE, AND DIE BY.
Code of Chivalry • Moral/ethical code of the knights • Behaviors of what is right/wrong
Tournaments: • when knights were not at war. (just like in A Knight’s Tale) • - Jousting • - sword fighting
MEDIEVAL WEAPONS LONG BOW CROSS BOW SWORD Trebuchet
Medieval Women • Role of Women in Feudal society • - little or no power • - could inherit land • - home activities or convent
Rise of the Guild System: • -people, especially the poor, without education were unsure of how to better their lives. • -What is the guild system? Page 388 in text take notes
Question to answer • 1) What is a guild? • 2) What is the purpose of the guild system? • 3) What are the different levels of the guild system? • 4) What are some examples of guilds?