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CTO Challenge. William Tschudi wftschudi@lbl.gov 510-495-2417 February 27, 2008. Selected LBNL Data Center findings Future bold moves. Benchmarks of energy end use. Overall electrical power use. Courtesy of Michael Patterson, Intel Corporation. Your mileage will vary.

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slide1

CTO Challenge

William Tschudi

wftschudi@lbl.gov

510-495-2417

February 27, 2008

overall electrical power use
Overall electrical power use

Courtesy of Michael Patterson, Intel Corporation

slide5

Your mileage will vary

The relative percentages of the energy doing computing varied considerably.

high level metric ratio of electricity delivered to it equipment
High level metric— Ratio of electricity delivered to IT equipment

Average .57

Higher is better

Source: LBNL Benchmarking

high level metric
High level metric—

CTO Challenge – get everyone to this level

Average .57

Source: LBNL Benchmarking

on line profiling tool data center pro

INPUTS

  • Description
  • Utility bill data
  • System information
    • IT
    • Cooling
    • Power
    • On-site gen

OUTPUTS

Overall picture of energy use and efficiency

End-use breakout

Potential areas for energy efficiency improvement

Overall energy use reduction potential

On-line profiling tool: “Data Center Pro”
doe save energy now data center program
Major Program Elements

1. Develop and test “DC Pro” Software using

pilot energy assessments

2. Create consensus metrics

3. Create and publicize Save Energy Now case studiesbased on pilot energy assessments

4. Create best practice information and a training curriculum

5. Develop Qualified Specialists program for Data Centers

6. Create guidelines for “Best-in-Class” data center within various classes of data centers, including strategies for incorporating distributed generation technologies

DOE Save Energy Now Data Center program
slide10

Industrial Technologies Program

  • Tool suite & metrics
  • Energy baselining
  • Training
  • Qualified specialists
  • Case studies
  • Certification of continual improvement
  • Recognition of high energy savers
  • Best practice information
  • Best-in-Class guidelines
  • Federal Energy Management Program
  • Best practicesshowcased at Federal data centers
  • Pilot adoption of Best-in-Class guidelines at Federal data centers
  • Adoption of to-be-developed industry standard for Best-in-Class at newly constructed Federal data centers
  • Industry
  • Tools
  • Metrics
  • Training
  • Best practice information
  • Best-in-Class guidelines
  • IT work productivity standard
  • EPA
    • Metrics
    • Server performancerating & ENERGY STAR label
    • Data center performance benchmarking
energy assessment tools
Energy assessment tools

Data Center Assessment Output

Overall energy performance (baseline) of data center

Performance of IT & infrastructure subsystems compared to benchmarks

Prioritized list of energy efficiency actions and their savings, in terms of energy cost ($), source energy (Btu), and carbon emissions (Mtons)

On-Site Gen

Renewables

Co-gen

Power Systems

UPS

Distribution

IT Module

Servers

Storage & networking

Software

Cooling

Air Mgmt

CRAC/CRAH

AHU

Chillers

energy efficiency opportunities are everywhere
Energy efficiency opportunities are everywhere
  • Better air management
  • Better environmental conditions
  • Move to liquid cooling
  • Optimized chilled-water plants
  • Use of free cooling
  • Load management
  • Server innovation

Power Conversion & Distribution

Server Load/ComputingOperations

Cooling Equipment

  • On-site generation
  • Waste heat for cooling
  • Use of renewable energy/fuel cells
  • High voltage distribution
  • Use of DC power
  • Highly efficient UPS systems
  • Efficient redundancy strategies

AlternativePower Generation

hvac best practices
HVAC best practices

Air Management

Air Economizers

Humidification Control

Centralized Air Handlers

Low Pressure Drop Systems

Fan Efficiency

Cooling Plant Optimization

Water Side Economizer

Variable Speed Chillers

Variable Speed Pumping

Direct Liquid Cooling

electrical best practices
Electrical best practices

UPS systems

Self-generation

AC-DC distribution

Standby generation

best practices and it equipment
Best practices and IT equipment

Power supply efficiency

Standby/sleep power modes

IT equipment fans

Virtualization

Load shifting

best practices cross cutting and misc issues
Best Practices—Cross-cutting and misc. issues

Motor efficiency

Right sizing

Variable speed drives

Lighting

Maintenance

Continuous Commissioning and Benchmarking

Heat Recovery

Building Envelope

Redundancy Strategies

design guidelines for ten best practices were developed
Design guidelines for ten best practices were developed

Guides available through LBNL’s website & PG&E’s Energy Design Resources website

slide18
Broaden recommended and allowable ranges of environmental conditions

Debunk contamination and ESD fears

Move to liquid cooling

Integrate computing equipment and the building

Minimize power conversion loss - end to end

Facilitate IT – Facilities – CFO understanding

CTO Challenge – Some bold steps to improve energy efficiency (and save your customers money)

slide19
Broaden recommended and allowable ranges of environmental conditions

HVAC can be greatly reduced if higher temperatures can be used for cooling IT equipment (using air or liquid)

ASHRAE addressing this but not based upon science

IT equipment operating at 80º F or higher has huge energy implications

CTO Challenge

temperature guidelines at the inlet to it equipment
Temperature guidelines – at the inlet to IT equipment

ASHRAE Allowable Maximum

ASHRAE Recommended Maximum

ASHRAE Recommended Minimum

ASHRAE Allowable Minimum

humidity guidelines at the inlet to it equipment
Humidity guidelines – at the inlet to IT equipment

ASHRAE Allowable Maximum

ASHRAE Recommended Maximum

ASHRAE Recommended Minimum

ASHRAE Allowable Minimum

cto challenge broaden environmental conditions
CTO challenge: Broaden environmental conditions

ASHRAE Allowable Maximum

ASHRAE Recommended Maximum

ASHRAE Recommended Minimum

ASHRAE Allowable Minimum

slide23

Total Power/IT Power

Metric 1.2 for planned LBNL supercomputer facility

Average of Facilities Measured-1.74

slide24
Debunk contamination and ESD fears

Direct use of outside air for cooling can result in large HVAC savings but fears of contamination hinder its adoption

LBNL studies suggest this should not be a problem

Failure data due to contamination has been requested – none has been produced

ESD is poorly understood.

CTO Challenge

outdoor measurements
Outdoor measurements

IBM Standard

EPA 24-Hour Health Standard

EPA Annual Health Standard

and ASHRAE Standard

measurements inside the centers
Measurements inside the centers

IBM Standard

EPA 24-Hour Health Standard

EPA Annual Health Standard

and ASHRAE Standard

slide27
Move to liquid cooling

Liquid can remove 3500 times as much heat as air

Liquid cooling could eliminate (or greatly reduce) the need for chillers

Liquid is creeping in now – how to accelerate it?

CTO Challenge

slide28
Integrate computing equipment and the building

Often multiple fans in series

air and liquid cooling

High delta T is efficient

Eliminate boxes

Control HVAC from servers on board sensors (Demo being planned)

CTO Challenge

slide29
Minimize power conversion loss - end to end

On site generation

Distribute high voltage AC or DC

Eliminate conversions with use of DC

Insist on high efficiency power supplies and UPS

Optimize DC conversions in the box

AC to the chip?

Redundancy

CTO Challenge

slide30

Measured UPS efficiency

Redundant Operation

slide31

5V

Internal Drive

PWM/PFC

Switcher

Unregulated DC

To Multi Output

Regulated DC

Voltages

Bypass

12V

External Drive

3.3V

I/O

12V

1.5/2.5V

In

Out

DC/DC

Memory Controller

AC/DC

1.1V-1.85V

12V

DC/DC

m Processor

Battery/Charger

Rectifier

Inverter

3.3V

SDRAM

3.3V

Graphics Controller

Voltage Regulator Modules

AC/DC Multi output

Power Supply

Data Center power conversions

AC

DC

DC

AC

Server

Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS)

Power Distribution Unit (PDU)

ups factory measurements
UPS factory measurements

Typical Operation

slide33

Power supply efficiency

Typical operation

slide34
Facilitate IT – Facilities – CFO understanding

Disconnect between facilities and IT

Operating budget vs capital budget

Operating cost equals or exceeds capital cost of IT equipment

How to get CFO’s engaged?

CTO and CFO Challenge

slide35
websites: http://hightech.lbl.gov/datacenters/

http://www1.eere.energy.gov/industry/saveenergynow/partnering_data_centers.html