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Balancing Security and Privacy in Times of Cyberterror

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  1. Balancing Security and Privacyin Times of Cyberterror EDUCAUSE Mid-Atlantic Regional Conference January 18, 2007 Steve Worona EDUCAUSE sworona@educause.edu

  2. The Internet ObeysOnly One Law

  3. The Internet ObeysOnly One Law The Law of Unintended Consequences

  4. or…

  5. Be careful what you ask for…

  6. …you might just get it

  7. Example 1: A Story from the Dawn of (Internet) Time It all started in 1995 with a simple question: What’s the best resource for filtering out adult material for K-12 students? • Net Nanny • Cybersitter • Surfwatch • Cyber Patrol • Etc.…

  8. Example 2:A Poll on Campaign Finance

  9. Example 2:A Poll on Campaign Finance Proposition 1:Who are our political candidates taking money from? This should be public information.(Agree/Disagree?)

  10. Example 2:A Poll on Campaign Finance Proposition 1:Who are our political candidates taking money from? This should be public information.(Agree/Disagree?) Proposition 2:What political candidates are you giving money to? This should be public information.(Agree/Disagree?)

  11. www.fec.gov

  12. Example 3:Do you want Privacyor Privacy?

  13. Example 3:Do you want Privacyor Privacy? Sorry, you can’t have both.

  14. “You can’t have Privacywithout Security”

  15. “You can’t have Privacywithout Security” • Privacy: Ensuring that your personal information doesn’t fall into the wrong hands

  16. “You can’t have Privacywithout Security” • Privacy: Ensuring that your personal information doesn’t fall into the wrong hands • “VA Data Files on Millions of Veterans Stolen” • “Bank of America Loses A Million Customer Records” • “UCLA Warns 800,000 of Computer Break-In”

  17. “You can’t have Privacywithout Security” • Privacy: Ensuring that your personal information doesn’t fall into the wrong hands • “VA Data Files on Millions of Veterans Stolen” • “Bank of America Loses A Million Customer Records” • “UCLA Warns 800,000 of Computer Break-In” • HIPAA, FERPA, etc. • State and federal data-spill notification mandates

  18. “You can’t have Privacywithout Security” • Privacy: Ensuring that your personal information doesn’t fall into the wrong hands • “VA Data Files on Millions of Veterans Stolen” • “Bank of America Loses A Million Customer Records” • “UCLA Warns 800,000 of Computer Break-In” • HIPAA, FERPA, etc. • State and federal data-spill notification mandates • Security: Limiting everyone’s activity to only the things they have a right to see and do • Who is trying to access data (“Authentication”) • Whether they have the right (“Authorization”)

  19. So Whenever Anyone Does Anything Online,We Want to Know…

  20. So Whenever Anyone Does Anything Online,We Want to Know… • Who they are

  21. So Whenever Anyone Does Anything Online,We Want to Know… • Who they are • What they’re doing

  22. So Whenever Anyone Does Anything Online,We Want to Know… • Who they are • What they’re doing • Why they’re doing it

  23. Authentication Mechanisms • Accounts and passwords • ATM cards and PINs • Smart cards • Challenge/response systems • Digital certificates • Key-fob tokens • Biometrics • Etc…

  24. When to Authenticate • Each time a data element is accessed • Each time a screen is presented • Each time a transaction is initiated • Once every minute/15 minutes/hour/day • “Single Sign-On”

  25. “To Whom” to Authenticate • The program you’re talking to • The server you’re talking to • The network

  26. The Trend • Single sign-on • With possible refresh for sensitive transactions • Network sign-on • Stronger authentication • “Guest” authentication • Wireless authentication • Identity intermediaries • Shibboleth

  27. Another Definition of Privacy • Privacy: The ability to go about your daily life without leaving a trail; the ability to read, speak, attend meetings, etc. anonymously

  28. The Importance of Anonymity “Anonymous pamphlets, leaflets, brochures and even books have played an important role in the progress of mankind. Persecuted groups and sects from time to time throughout history have been able to criticize oppressive practices and laws either anonymously or not at all.” – Hugo Black, Talley v. California, 1960

  29. Privacy1 vs Privacy2 • Privacy1: Ensuring that your personal information doesn’t fall into the wrong hands. (“Confidentiality”) • Privacy2: The ability to go about your daily life without leaving a trail; the ability to read (speak, attend meetings, etc.) anonymously. (“Anonymity”)

  30. The Dilemma

  31. The Dilemma • We want to go through cyber-life without leaving a trail

  32. The Dilemma • We want to go through cyber-life without leaving a trail • But we want everyone who comes in contact with our data (and with us) to be identified and monitored

  33. The Dilemma • We want to go through cyber-life without leaving a trail • But we want everyone who comes in contact with our data (and with us) to be identified and monitored • Spam • Phishing • Threats • Poison-pen postings • Baseless accusations • Etc…

  34. The Dilemma • We want to go through cyber-life without leaving a trail • But we want everyone who comes in contact with our data (and with us) to be identified and monitored Not Much Different Than • We want everyone to know who the candidates are getting money from • But we don’t want anyone to know who we are giving money to

  35. Privacy Can Be Tricky:Consider Chat Rooms • In general you have no legal “expectation of privacy” in a chat room because you don’t know who else is listening • You’re essentially speaking in public • You have no reason to believe a police officer (on- or off-duty) isn’t present • US vs Charbonneau

  36. Privacy Can Be Tricky:Consider Chat Rooms • In general you have no legal “expectation of privacy” in a chat room because you don’t know who else is listening • You’re essentially speaking in public • You have no reason to believe a police officer (on- or off-duty) isn’t present • US vs Charbonneau • What are the limitations on government surveillance of chat rooms?

  37. Privacy Can Be Tricky:Consider Chat Rooms • In general you have no legal “expectation of privacy” in a chat room because you don’t know who else is listening • You’re essentially speaking in public • You have no reason to believe a police officer (on- or off-duty) isn’t present • US vs Charbonneau • What are the limitations on government surveillance of chat rooms? • Child molestors

  38. Privacy Can Be Tricky:Consider Chat Rooms • In general you have no legal “expectation of privacy” in a chat room because you don’t know who else is listening • You’re essentially speaking in public • You have no reason to believe a police officer (on- or off-duty) isn’t present • US vs Charbonneau • What are the limitations on government surveillance of chat rooms? • Child molestors • Dissident political groups

  39. The Dilemma • We want to go through cyber-life without leaving a trail • But we want everyone who comes in contact with our data (and with us) to be identified and monitored Not Much Different Than • We want everyone to know who the candidates are getting money from • But we don’t want anyone to know who we are giving money to

  40. “Identified and Monitored” • “Government Plans Massive Data Sweep” • “Feds Get Wide Wiretap Authority” • “NSA Has Massive Database of Americans’ Phone Calls” • “Finance-Monitoring Program Amounts to Spying” • “Police Chief Wants Surveillance Cameras in Houston Apartments” • “Future Fuzzy for Government Use of Public Surveillance Cameras”

  41. Why Now?

  42. Why Now? • Because we can

  43. Why Now? • Because we can • Technology now makes it possible to collect, maintain, and process everything you do • Moore’s Law is not being repealed • Brain = 1TB = $500 retail • Gordon Bell: MyLifeBits (10TB) • Library of Congress = 100TB • WORM drives • The Internet Archive • Ray Kurzweil: “The Singularity Is Near”

  44. Why Now? • Because we can • And so our only limitations are those we choose to impose on ourselves

  45. Why Now? • Because we can • Because we (think we) must

  46. Why Now? • Because we can • Because we (think we) must • Why?

  47. Why Now? • Because we can • Because we (think we) must • Because it makes law enforcement easier

  48. Law Enforcement and Data • Specific, focused, temporary • Tap, probe, monitor, investigate what’s needed to deal with a particular crime or threat

  49. The Fourth Amendment The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

  50. Law Enforcement and Data • Specific, focused, temporary • Tap, probe, monitor, investigate what’s needed to deal with a particular crime or threat • Just in case • Capture all possible information so that, whenever something goes wrong, we can just play back the tape