OCN 5401. Chapter 4 Global Balances Instructor: Dr. George A. Maul firstname.lastname@example.org / X 7453. Earth’s Greenhouse Effect. Climate Variability. Milutin Milankovitch. Why Sa and Ssa. Florida Current Transport (a branch of the oceanic conveyor belt). Little Ice Age. Increasing Temperature.
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OCN 5401 Chapter 4 Global Balances Instructor: Dr. George A. Maul email@example.com / X 7453
Climate Variability Milutin Milankovitch Why Sa and Ssa
Florida Current Transport (a branch of the oceanic conveyor belt)
Little Ice Age Increasing Temperature
Continuity Leonhard Euler
California Coastal Jets(more continuity at work) Coastal Upwelling
Inter-basin Oceanic Flow from Evaporation (E) minus [Precipitation (P) plus Runoff (R)] How does 19 x 103 km3 / year compare with the Florida Current?
The Hydrologic Cycle How much water moves in the hydrologic cycle?
E-(P+R) Volume of water in atmosphere 0.013 x 106 km3 Volume of water in ocean 1350 x 106 km3 Evaporation over land = 0.062 x 106 km3/yr Evaporation over ocean = 0.361 x 106 km3/yr Precipitation over land = 0.099 x 106 km3/yr Precipitation over ocean = 0.324 x 106 km3/yr Runoff from land to ocean = 0.037 x 106 km3/yr Volume of water in ground 34 x 106 km3
Residence Times (t) Residence Time (Ocean): t=volume/E= Residence Time (Atmosphere): t=volume/(Pocean + Pland)= What assumptions are made in these calculations?
What is the Cryosphere? • Sea, lake, and river ice • Glaciers • Ice sheets • Ice caps • Ice shelves • Frozen ground such as permafrost
HOW BIG IS THE CRYOSPHERE? Approximately 3% of all the water in the hydrosphere is contained in the Cryosphere. WHERE DO WE FIND THE CRYOSPHERE? Glaciers cover about 10% of land area Permafrost is another 20% of land area HOW MUCH IS SEA ICE? Two-thirds of Earth’s permanent ice cover One-thousandth of Earth’s total ice volume
Earth’s Cryosphere is 43.4 x 106 km3 How tall would a 1 km x 1 km tower of 4.3x107 km3 stand? Volume = Height x Length x Width What is the distance to the sun?
Past Glaciation Ice cover changes Earth’s Albedo (A) Who Cares?
Climate Change: Antarctic Ice “Facts matter” Stephen Breyer Associate Justice, US Supreme Court
Post Script: Greenland Sea Deep Water Warming http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/09/130925102833.htm
OCN 5401 Chapter 4 Questions?