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Unit Eight. Language Structure. See the following sentences and pay attention to the grammar rules they use:. 1. 12 October 1492 was the day when Columbus landed in America. 2. A kitchenette is a small room where people cook their meals. 3. I like the way she spoke .

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slide2

Language

Structure

See the following sentences and pay attention to the grammar rules they use:

  • 1. 12 October 1492 was the day when Columbus landed in America.
  • 2. A kitchenette is a small room where people cook their meals.
  • 3. I like the way she spoke.
  • Is that the reason why we have tests and quizzes all the time?
  • 5. In 1956, the number of minority nationality students in institutions of higher learning increased a twenty-one thousand and nine hundred, and it was more than seven and a half times that of 1952.
slide3

定语从句: (Attributive Clause / Relative Clause)

1. 定义:一个句子做定语叫做定语从句。E.g. She is our  new teacher who has just come back from the United States.     

2. 先行词:被修饰的部分叫先行词。先行词可以是一个词,也可以是一个句子。定语从句一般要在先行词之后。E.g. a. This is the baby  whom you will look  after.    

b. They invited me to visit their country, which is very kind of them.

3. 关系词

1)关系代词:that, which, who, whom, as, 在从句中作主语,宾语或表语;作宾语时一般可省略;whose在从句中作定语。

E.g. a. That was all  that I wanted to tell you about .    

b. A scientist is a person who does scientific research.                  

c. The house  whose door is brown is mine.           

slide4

2)关系副词:where, when, why 在从句中作状语。

a. This is the school  where I studied twenty years ago.                   

b. I thought of my childhood  when I lived in the village.                      

c. That's the reason  why I'm not in favour of your plan.  

4. 该用关系副词还是关系代词先行词是表示时间或地点的名词时,并不都是用关系副词引导,而是要看关系词在从句中所作的成份。作状语时,用关系副词;作宾语时,仍然要用关系代词。a. She is going to spend the summer holidays in Qingdao,  where she has some relatives. b. This is the  place  which  I visited last year.

c.  Did you still remember the days  when  we spent together in Hainan?  d. October 1st is  the day  which  we Chinese people will never forget.

slide5

2)关系副词:where, when, why 在从句中作状语。

  关系副词可代替的先行词是时间、地点或理由的名词,在从句中作状语。A. when, where, why  关系副词when, where, why的含义相当于“介词+ which”结构,因此常常和“介词+ which”结构交替使用,E.g. :a. There are occasions when (on which) one must yield.

b. Beijing is the place where (in which) I was born.

c. Is this the reason why (for which) he refused our offer?

B. that代替关系副词that可以用于表示时间、地点、方式、理由的名词后取代when, where, why和“介词+ which”引导的定语从句,在口语中that常被省略,E.g. :His father died the year (that / when / in which) he was born.

He is unlikely to find the place (that / where / in which) he lived forty years ago.

slide6

Practice:

1. Alec asked the policeman _______ he worked to contact him whenever there was an accident.A. with him B. who C. with whom D. whom

2.The result of the experiment was very good, _______ we hadn't expect.A. when B. that C. which D. what

3. Recently I bought an ancient Chinese vase, _______ was very reasonable.A. which price B. the price of whichC. its price D. the price of whose

slide7

Practice:

1. Alec asked the policeman _______ he worked to contact him whenever there was an accident.A. with him B. who C. with whom D. whom

2.The result of the experiment was very good, _______ we hadn't expect.A. when B. that C. which D. what

3. Recently I bought an ancient Chinese vase, _______ was very reasonable.A. which price B. the price of whichC. its price D. the price of whose

slide8

Practice:

1._______ has been announced, we shall have our final exams next month.A. That B. As C. It D. What

2. Have you seen the film Titanic, _______ leading actor is world famous? A. its B. it's C. whose D. which

slide9

Language

Structure

Practice 1 : Talking about some important dates in history

A: I’ve come across some dates in my reading and each of them refers to some important events. (Suppose I give you a few dates and you’ll try to guess what dates they are.)

B: Okay.

A: (The first date is 12 October 1492.)

B: Oh, that was the day when Columbus first landed in America.

slide10

Language

Structure

Practice 2 : Identifying things

A: (Do you know what a kitchenette is?)

B: Yes, a kitchenette is a small room where people cook their meals.

A: (Can I say that it is a room where meals are prepared?)

B: Of course. That means the same thing.

slide11

Language

Structure

Practice 3 :Expressing appreciation

A: How did Susan strike you?

B: (Oh, she made a good impression on me.) I like the way she spoke.

A: She spoke in an amusing way, didn’t she?

B: (Yes. The way she spoke amused the audience.)

slide12

Language

Structure

Practice 4 : Seeking and giving clarification

A: Why do we have tests and quizzes all the time?

B: (So that we may know how we’re getting on with our work.)

A: Is that the reason why we have tests and quizzes all the time?

B: (well, it may not be the only reason,) but it’s one of the main reasons.

slide13

Language Points:

1. manifesto: A public declaration, as on the part of an official or a state, concerning political measures or intentions. 宣言;声明

2. theatre: hall or room with seats in rows rising one behind another for lectures, scientific demonstration, etc. (供演讲、科学示范等用的)有阶梯式座位的讲堂式会场。

operating theatre手术室

3. promptly:

prompt: adj. Ready and quick to act as occasion demands; immediate. 迅速的;敏捷的

a. Done without delay. (指行动)立刻的;不延迟的

a prompt answer立即的回答

b. v.t. Rouse to action. 促使

4. index: n. Something serving to guide, point out or otherwise aid reference. 导引;指标;标記。

slide14

Dialogue

I

At the Sunday Fair in Kashi

Think it

  • What does the “Fair” mean here?
  • Have you ever been to some Fair?
  • Do you like to do some shopping in the Fair? Why?
slide15

Dialogue

I

At the Sunday Fair in Kashi

pictures

slide16

Dialogue

I

At the Sunday Fair in Kashi

pictures

slide17

Dialogue

I

At the Sunday Fair in Kashi

pictures

slide18

Dialogue

I

At the Sunday Fair in Kashi

pictures

slide19

Dialogue

I

At the Sunday Fair in Kashi

pictures

slide20

Dialogue

I

At the Sunday Fair in Kashi

pictures

slide21

Dialogue

I

At the Sunday Fair in Kashi

pictures

slide22

Dialogue

I

At the Sunday Fair in Kashi

Questions

Browse through the text, try to answer following questions.

1. What does B think about Urumqi?

2. Why does the city Kashi give B a deep impression? Give some details.

3. How do the people in Kashi do business?

4. Will you go to Xinjiang if you have a chance?

slide23

Dialogue

I

At the Sunday Fair in Kashi

Read

Please read the dialogue loudly with feeling and expression.

slide24

Dialogue

I

At the Sunday Fair in Kashi

Retell

Sample outline:

B has just come back from Xinjiang and he tells A about:

Urumqi — modern and big

Kashi — typically Uygur

The Sunday Fair in Kashi — things sold & the way business is done

slide25

Dialogue I

Language Points

1

…think it was a city in the remote, legendary northwest.

  • remote: a. far away; distant n. remoteness
  • a remote village 偏僻的;边远的 (place)
  • the remote star / future 遥远的 (time)
  • a remote relative 远亲 (relationship)

2) legendary: a. Of, constituting, based on, or of the nature of a legend 传说中的

n. legendary 传奇文学

n. legend

slide26

Dialogue I

Language Points

2

It’s where you can get the real flavour of Uygur traditional life and craft.

1) craft: n. 1) skill in doing or making something =craftsmanship

e.g. manual craft / light crafts / needle craft

2) a kind of boat

e.g. air or space craft / landing craft / life craft

Phrases: by craft用诡计[手腕]

with craft有技巧地, 巧妙地

2) It’s where: It’s ( the place ) where

slide27

Dialogue I

Language Points

2

It’s where you can get the real flavour of Uygur traditional life and craft.

  • flavour
  • 1.味道 我不喜欢洋葱的味道。
  • I don't like the flavour of onion.
  • 2.风味
  • 这首诗有民歌风味。
  • This poem has the distinctive flavour of a ballad.
    • 3.韵味
    • 这些作品具有浓郁的农村生活气息。
    • These works have a strong flavour of rural life.
slide28

Dialogue I

Language Points

3

…silverware, bronzeware, pottery and embroidery…

  • silverware / bronzeware -ware n.
  • embroidery: n.
  • e.g. The dress was covered with beautiful embroidery.
  • v. embroider: to make needlework.
  • e.g. to embroider a design on a bedspread.
slide29

Dialogue I

Language Points

4

Some useful sentences in this dialogue:

  • It was some time before I figured out whythey all wore hats.
  • Sunday is usually the time when lots of people go to Kashi for the fair.
  • I was amused by the way the shopkeeper did business.
slide30

Dialogue I

Language Points

5

You didn’t resist the temptation to buy one, did you?

1) resist: v. n. resistance

a. resist sth. E.g. I can't resist baked apples.

b. resist doing sth. E.g. She could hardly resist laughing.

phrases: resist aggression抵抗侵略

resist heat耐热

2) temptation: n. v. tempt adj. temptational / temptatious

E.g. resist temptation 抵制诱惑, 不受诱惑

a strong temptation to sb.

phrases: fall into [give way to, yield to] temptation受诱惑

lead (sb.) into temptation使人入迷

slide31

Dialogue

II

Feelings, Part 1—Delight, Relief

Practice

Practice expressions about expressing feelings

slide32
Language Points:

1) stifle: (to cause to) be unable to breathe comfortably, esp. because of heat and lack of fresh air.

(使)感到窒息,(使)透不过气来

E.g. He stifled to death by the fumes.

2) pull up: to (cause to) come to a stop.(使)停止

E.g. The car pulled up at the traffic lights.

3) phew : interj. A quick short whistling breath, expressing tiredness, shock or relief.啊! 唉!

4) hurrah: interj. Expressing joy, welcome, approval, etc.欢呼声

5) skid off: move or slip sideways, etc. 滑向一恻,打滑

6) mustard: 芥末

slide33

Dialogue I

Language Points

1

I’m absolutely fascinated.

fascinated: adj. attracted (sb.) fascinating: adj. (sth.)

v. fascinate : to hold an intense interest or attraction for 迷住

E.g. The city fascinates him.

The changing vivid colours of the sunset fascinated the eye.

The very style of the old house fascinates.

n. fascination : intense interest 迷恋, 强烈爱好

slide34

Dialogue I

Language Points

2

At last, the confusion is over.

  • n. confusion: a state of being unclear or not sure about sth.
  • confusional
  • Phrases: in a state of mental confusion
  • fall into confusion
  • be a confusion of 是一片混乱的
  • covered with confusion 非常慌张
  • in confusion 乱七八糟, 处于混乱状态
  • throw into confusion 使狼狈, 使慌[混]乱
slide35

Dialogue I

Language Points

3

…have stifled to death. & …hovering over the small town.

  • stifle: vt. & vi. to die of suffocation 窒息而死
  • Phrases: stifle to death
  • 2) hover: vi.
  • a. to remain floating, suspended, or fluttering in the air 盘旋
  • E.g. gulls hovering over the waves 在浪尖盘旋的海鸥
  • b. to remain or linger in or near a place 徘徊
  • E.g. hovering around the speaker‘s podium 在演讲台边徘徊
  • c. to remain in an uncertain state 踌躇,犹豫不决
  • E.g. hovered between anger and remorse.
slide36

Reading

I

Daydreaming

Questions

  • Define daydreaming
  • 2. In what way does daydreaming differ from fantasy?
  • 3. What sort of people show particular interest in daydream research?
  • 4. When is one most likely to daydream?
  • 5. How does daydreaming affect us positively?
  • 6. How is daydreaming related to personality type?
  • 7. Do most daydreamers have personality problems?
  • 8. Which pattern of daydreaming fits the majority of people?
slide37

Reading

I

Daydreaming

Structure

The main idea of the whole text and each part:

The main idea: The passage tells us psychologists’ observation, analysis and explanation on daydreams.

Part I (Para.1-2): Illustrate some examples of daydreams.

Part II (Para.3-4): Different views on the value of daydreams.

Part III (Para.5): The frequency of daydreams and their content.

Part IV (Para. 6): Three daydream patterns.

slide38

2

The urge to gaze out the window is irresistible.

Dialogue I

Language Points

1

…the birds are singing and the trees are budding.

budding: adj. beginning to develop 开始发育(发展)的

Phrases: a budding sportsman 初露头角的

a budding beauty 妙龄女郎

a budding scientist

1) urge: n. an impulse that prompts action or effort 强烈欲望

E.g. He has an urge to become a cinema star.

urge: vt. to force or drive forward or onward 推进,驱策

slide39

2

The urge to gaze out the window is irresistible.

Dialogue I

Language Points

1) urge: v. urge against 极力反对

urge... into doing [to do] 催促[怂恿]...做

urge on [onward, forward] 推进; 驱策

urge sth. on [upon] sb. 向某人极力陈述某事

2) gaze: v. to look steadily, intently 凝视,注视

Phrases: gaze after sb. 目送某人

gaze around 左顾右盼

gaze at 盯住

gaze on 看到, 望见

gaze out 向外注视

3) irresistible: a. impossible to resist 不可抗拒的

Phrase: irresistible desire / impulse

n. irresistibility / irresistibleness

slide40

Dialogue I

Language Points

3

Suddenly you are startled back to reality.

startle: v. to alarm, frighten, or surprise suddenly

Phrase: startle sb. out of one‘s wits 使人惊呆

Sentence: He startled from sleep.

I was startled by [at]the news of his death.

She was startled to see him looking so ill.

slide41

Dialogue I

Language Points

4

Fantasy is more self-directed.

  • Fantasy:
  • n.  幻想
  • 年轻人总是生活在幻想中。
  • The young always live in a world of fantasy.
    • 他不能将幻想与现实分开。
  • He is unable to divorce fantasy from reality.
    • v.  幻想 他想像自己是一位医生。
  • He fantasies himself a doctor.
slide42

Dialogue I

Language Points

5

… you thoughts wander unconsciously in unexpected directions.

unconsciously: adv.

unconscious: adj. lacking awareness 无意识的

conscious: a. be aware of sth. 有意识的

phrases: be conscious of one's shortcomings

with a conscious air 故作谦虚地

cost conscious 成本意识

red conscious 对红色敏感的

sentences: He was conscious that he must do all this.

The old man was conscious to the last.

I am conscious that I have done right.

slide43

Dialogue I

Language Points

6

…prisoners of was to survive torture and deprivation.

  • torture: n. a. infliction of severe physical pain 严刑,酷刑
  • b. physical or mental pain 痛苦,折磨
  • c. something causing severe pain 拷打;拷问
  • phrases: suffer torture from因...受痛苦
  • the tortures of jealousy妒忌的折磨
  • vt. torture adj. torturous n. torturer
  • 2) deprivation: n. the act of taking something away 剥夺
  • phrase: water deprivation
  • v. deprive (of) adj. deprivable n. deprival
slide44

Dialogue I

Language Points

7

…a great deal of time each day in idle thought…

idle: adj. 1) not employed or busy 空闲的 E.g. idle carpenters

2) lazy 懒惰的,游手好闲的 E.g. idle youth

3) not in use or operation 闲置的 E.g. idle hands

4) lacking substance, value 无实质的,无价值的

Phrases: an idle fellow游手好闲的人

idle worms懒虫 idle hours闲时

idle gossip说短道长者, 散布流言蜚语者

have one's hands idle手空着, 没事干

be idle to argue争论也无用

idle fear(s)无端的恐惧

v. idle E.g. idle the whole afternoon n. idleness / idling /idler

adv. idly

slide45

Dialogue I

Language Points

8

…this kind tend to brood and be riddled with self-doubt.

  • brood: vi. to be deep in thought 沉思;冥想
  • E.g. Don’t brood about it.
  • vt. to hatch, to protect 孵蛋, 庇护
  • n. a group of young birds (动物中鸟或家禽的)一窝
  • E.g. a brood of chickens
  • adj. Kept for breeding: 为繁殖而饲养的
  • E.g. a brood hen / mare
  • Phrases: brood above/over (气氛)笼罩
  • brood on念念不忘, 计较(特指忿恨不满)
  • brood up养育; 繁殖
slide46

Dialogue I

Language Points

9

…this kind tend to brood and be riddled with self-doubt.

  • 2)riddle:
  • 1. n. a difficult problem谜,谜语
  • That painting is still a riddle to us.
    • 那幅画对我们仍然是个谜。
    • 2. v. spread or diffuse through充满
    • He is riddled with self-doubt.
    • 他对自己充满了质疑
    • 3.v.  pierce with many holes打洞
    • Stay where you are, or I'll riddle you with bullet holes.
      • 不要乱动,不然我就把你打得满身是弹孔。
slide47

Better by far you should forget and smile

Than that you should remember and be sad.

---- Christina Rossetti

最好遗忘, 开心笑,

不要记起, 心悲伤。

——克里思蒂娜. 罗塞蒂

slide48

Recalling My Primary and Secondary School Days

Interaction

Activities

How do you think of your primary and secondary school days?

Were there any deep memories?

slide49

Spelling

Dictation

A

Dictation

B

Listening

Comprehension

Listening

Practice

slide51

Dictation A

Imagine sitting on the smooth floor of a dark room. There are no windows or doors. The walls are so thick that no noise from outside can reach you. At first, you might enjoy the restfulness. There would be nothing for you to do. If you were tired, you might fall asleep after a while. But how would you feel when you woke up?

If you wouldn’t see or hear or smell anything, you wouldn’t known where you were. You wouldn’t know what time it was. Soon, you might start to see things which are not here. You might see flashing lights, here dog barking, or smell a cake baking. You might imagine that the floor or the walls were moving. You might feel very warm or very cold. You might even shout to the people outside the room, asking them to let you out.

What has been happening? The human mind is deprived of external stimuli it’s used to. It manufactures its own.

slide52

Dictation B

Most people rarely think about how or why they sleep. We need sleep to rest our bodies and our minds. Both are important in order for use to be healthy. It seems there are two purposes of sleep: physical rest and emotional rest.

Each night we alternate between two kinds of sleep: active sleep and passive sleep. Passive sleep gives our body the rest that is needed, and prepares for active sleep, in which dreaming occurs. In passive sleep, the body is at rest, and the brain becomes very inactive. If we continue to sleep, we will enter a more active stage, in which the brain goes from being very inactive to being active and eyes begin to move rapidly. The eye movement signals that the person is dreaming. This alternating cycle is repeated several times throughout the might. During eight hours of sleep, we dream for a total of one and a half hours, on the average.

slide53

Dictation B

Many people say that they do not dream, or that they rarely dream. This is not what actually happens, because everyone dreams and in fact, everyone needs to dream in order to stay healthy. The truth is we need both kinds of sleep: We need passive sleep to rest our bodies and active sleep in order to dream. Dreaming helps us to rest our minds.

slide54

Read the following sets of numbers. It shouldn’t (1) ____ you more than about ten (2) _______. 876 935 290 (3) ____ 841 986 405 (4) ____it or not, there are (5)______ who can read these numbers as (6) ____as a flash and remember them for the (7)_____ of their lives. They have photographic memories that (8)______ focus on something and store it in their (9) ____ forever—like a camera captures something (10) ___ on film. Scientists think that (11) ____ one person in (12) ____ has this remarkable (13) ___to remember.

A 23-year-old American (14) ____student could read poetry in foreign (15) ____she had never studied, and then (16)___ the poems later without any (17) ____. She explained that she could “see” the (18) _____ in her mind. To prove this, she could (19) ____say the poems backwards.

After months of (20) ______with the girl, two scientists prepared a (21)____ test. They made a huge “chessboard” with 10,000 (22) __and white squares put down in a haphazard (23)____. The girl studied the giant board for (24) ____a few minutes. Months later, she could still (25)____ the position of all the squares perfectly.

slide56

Translation:

  • The boy is so obstinate that he won’t listen to anybody’s advice, not even his parents.
  • After the invention of the new model, the old one, by contrast, seemed very clumsy and slow.
  • Since time was very pressing, they had to travel by night as well as by day.
  • The consumption of domestic fuel oil varies from 150 gallons a month in winter to practically nothing in July and August.
  • Did you have much trouble getting tickets for the exhibition?
  • He survived the accident miraculously, but no one else did.
  • I was struck by the resemblance between the two men.
  • After the conference the general manager winked at me several times, but I still couldn’t figure out that he was hinting at.