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Macedonia, Philip II, and Alexander the Great. Macedonia. To the north of Greece Probably related to Greeks and spoke similar language Greeks saw them as “ barbarians ”. Philip II (lived 382-336 BC). At age 21, Macedonian King Philip II unites Macedonia under his rule

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  • To the north of Greece

  • Probably related to Greeks and spoke similar language

  • Greeks saw them as “barbarians”

Philip ii lived 382 336 bc
Philip II (lived 382-336 BC)

  • At age 21, Macedonian King Philip II unites Macedonia under his rule

  • Reorganizes the army to be more professional and effective

    • Soldiers were paid

    • Phalanx equipped with 18 foot spears

Invades greece
Invades Greece

  • The Greek city-states were weak from years of fighting amongst each other (Peloponnesian War)

  • The Athenian statesman Demosthenes tried to convince the Greeks to unite against Macedonia

    • The Greeks didn’t unite until it was too late

Battle of chaeronea
Battle of Chaeronea

  • Athens and Thebes lead a united Greek army to confront Philip at the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC

  • Although outnumbered, the Macedonians win

  • Philip’s 18 year old son, Alexander proves himself a capable commander during the battle

  • Greece will be ruled by foreigners until the 1800’s AD

How did he control mountainous greece
How did he control mountainous Greece?

  • Philip installed garrisons of troops in most Greek cities

  • He also made alliances with the Greek city-states

  • He planned to use these Greeks’ armies and navies in his invasion of Persia

Alexander becomes king
Alexander becomes King

  • In 336 BC, Philip is assassinated and Alexander becomes king at age 20

  • He quickly consolidated power

Alexander invades persia
Alexander invades Persia

  • In 334 BC he crossed into Asia Minor to conquer Persia

  • Alexander won battles throughout Asia Minor and Mesopotamia

  • In fact, Alexander the Great never lost a battle!

Alexander in egypt
Alexander in Egypt

Alexander was welcomed as a liberator in Egypt.

They even crowned him pharaoh, a title future Macedonia rulers used in Egypt

Alexander s successors
Alexander’s Successors

  • Alexander died at age 32 in Babylon

  • He left no legitimate heir.

    • Empire divided amonghis generals


  • Among the most famous of Alexander’s successors was Ptolemy

  • He set up the Ptolemaic pharaoh dynasty in Egypt.

  • Among his decedents, and the last Ptolemaic king in Egypt was Cleopatra VII.

Hellenistic culture
Hellenistic Culture

  • One of the lasting impacts of Alexander’s conquests was the spread of Greek culture to Persia, India, and Egypt

  • This blended culture is called Hellenistic.

  • Greeks moved into the Hellenistic kingdoms and built cities, further spreading Greek influence.

  • The Hellenistic kingdoms would continue untl they were conquered by Rome in the 1st century BC (100’s BC)

Library at alexandria
Library at Alexandria

  • One of Alexanria’s most famous creations was a library that held over 500,000 scrolls

  • The library was a research institution

    • Many great thinkers of the time worked there including Archimedes and Euclid