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8987 Global Perspectives. Technology & Ethics Artificial Intelligence. Definition. Coined by John McCarthy in 1956 The intelligence of machines and robots and the branch of computer science that aims to create it. “The study and design of intelligent agents"

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8987 global perspectives

8987 Global Perspectives

Technology & Ethics

Artificial Intelligence

definition
Definition

Coined by John McCarthy in 1956

The intelligence of machines and robots and the branch of computer science that aims to create it.

“The study and design of intelligent agents"

An intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chances of success.

artificial intelligence
Artificial Intelligence

These advanced technologies are becoming ubiquitous. We see them:

Vacuuming our floors

Giving us directions

As anti-terrorist drones

Driver-less cars

4 types of ai methodologies
4 Types of AI Methodologies

1. Symbolic AI

2. Connectionism

3. Situated robotics

4. Evolutionary programming

AI artifacts are varied. They include both programs (including neural networks) and robots, each of which may be either designed in detail or largely evolved.

symbolic ai
Symbolic AI

Also known as classical AI and as GOFAI—short for John Haugeland's label "Good Old-Fashioned AI" (1985).

It models mental processes as the step-by-step information processing of digital computers.

Thinking is seen as symbol-manipulation

Some consist of procedures and subroutines specified at different levels.

Many consist of sets of logically separate if-then (condition-action) rules, which define what actions should be taken in response to specific conditions

Models include planning programs, theorem-provers, learning programs, question-answerers, data-mining systems, machine translators

connectionist systems
Connectionist Systems

Became widely visible in the mid-1980s

They compute not by following step-by-step programs but by using large numbers of locally connected (associative) computational units, each one of which is simple.

The processing is bottom-up rather than

top-down.

These models are good for pattern recognition (ex: reconstructing torn documents)

situated robotics
Situated Robotics

These are autonomous systems embedded in their environment.

Instead of planning their actions, as classical robots do, situated robots react directly to environmental cues.

Their if-then rules are engineered rather than programmed, and their conditions lie in the external environment, not inside computer memory, like symbolic models

evolutionary programming
Evolutionary Programming

Genetic algorithms (GAs) are used by a program to make random variations in its own rules.

Used to develop both symbolic and connectionist AI systems.

It is applied both to abstract problem-solving (mathematical optimization, for instance, or the synthesis of new pharmaceutical molecules) and to evolutionary robotics—wherein the brain and/or sensorimotor anatomy of robots evolve within a specific task-environment.

possibility of artificial intelligence the turing test
Possibility of Artificial Intelligence?The Turing Test

Turing was the author of “Computing Machinery and Intelligence” published in 1950.

He believed that computing machines could be intelligent but thought that human bias may not allow one to see this.

Instead of asking "Can machines think?" he replaced with "the imitation game."

the turing test
The Turing Test

The game involves: a man (A), a woman (B), and a human interrogator (C).

The interrogator is in a room apart from the other two and tries to determine through conversation (via a teleprinter) the gender of (A) and (B)

The man may lie but the woman is to tell the truth.

Turing believed a machine could be considered intelligent if it would more accurately determine the genders of the player than a human interrogator.

practical applications nanotechnology
Practical Applications - Nanotechnology

Technology where the key feature sizes for electronic and mechanical technologies will be in the nanotechnology range

Generally considered to be less than 100 nanometers (one billionth of one meter)

Biomedical applications has already entered the era of nanoparticles, in which nanoscale objects are being developed to create more-effective tests and treatments, such as sending

medications to specific area in the body.

nanotechnology the human brain
Nanotechnology & the Human Brain

Brain implants based on massively distributed intelligent nanobots will greatly expand memories and otherwise vastly improve sensory, pattern-recognition, and cognitive abilities

Since the nanobots will be communicating with one another, they will be able to create any set of new neural connections, break existing connections, create new hybrid biological and computer networks, and add completely mechanical networks, as well as interface intimately with new computer programs and artificial intelligences.

weather
Weather

Soon, scientists may be able to predict the weather better by using artificial intelligence software.

The software can sift through complex data and spot patterns missed by the human eye.

When this software sees a big storm coming, it will automatically issue alerts to warn residents and the media, and this may help save lives

tedious tasks
Tedious Tasks

Think robotic vacuum cleaner

These devices are able to maneuver around obstacles like stairs, furniture and even the cat.

Facilities with large turf areas, like golf courses, rely on similar technology to mow their lawns without the need for human intervention].

In the future, may allow robot sort trash and recycling at waste processing centers.

May also allow machines to perform tasks too dangerous for humans, such as mining or firefighting.

Some countries have already put smart robots to work disabling land mines and even handling radioactive materials in order to limit the risk to human workers

environmental pursuits
Environmental Pursuits

Advanced software programs will allow these machines to distinguish between biological organisms and potential pollutants like oil or hazardous waste.

Tiny microbes will consume waste products and leave good biological matter intact, minimizing damage to the ecosystem.

Smart software can also limit the effects of air pollution from manufacturing and industrial processes.

Some of these factories already use artificial intelligence programs to identify patterns during combustion and modify manufacturing processes to minimize pollution.

Others rely on this software to capture dangerous chemicals before they enter the smokestack and end up in the air outside

driverless transport
Driverless Transport

Through the use of cameras, sensors and software, AI may soon drive one’s car.

Manufacturers already rely on this technology to make backing up and parking safer, while both the Toyota Prius and certain Lexus models can self-park at the touch of a button

Driverless trains carry passengers from city to city in Japan without the need for human help, and self-driving cars may be closer than you think.

In 2010, Google began testing its own line of driverless cars, which rely on lasers and sensors to spot obstacles, interpret signs and interact with traffic and pedestrians.

space exploration
Space Exploration

Will allow scientists to travel and explore more of the universe beyond our solar system.

Driverless land rovers also allow researchers to explore and photograph Mars and other planets,

These smart vehicles sense obstacles, like craters, and find safe paths of travel around them before returning to the shuttle

AI will also help scientists react more quickly to emergencies during manned flights.

For example, a radio message from Mars takes roughly 11 minutes to reach Earth. Rather than waiting for advice from scientists on the ground when trouble arises, astronauts will work with onboard software systems to spot and prevent problems before they happen

financial security
Financial Security

As of 2010, roughly half of world stock trades are driven by artificial intelligence-based software.

These programs rely on algorithms to spot patterns in the market and predict price changes based on these patterns

Some can even buy or sell shares based on these predictions, while others issue an alert to human brokers and advise them of the changes to come.

AI software may soon be able to protect consumers from fraud by spotting changes in spending or credit card use.

safety
Safety

The U.S. Department of Homeland Security relies on virtual smart agents to supplement its human workforce, or to replace an agent when he or she is unavailable.

The agency also incorporates AI software into its monitoring systems, which scan phone calls and other communications.

These programs can sift through large volumes of data quickly and are even capable of distinguishing between casual conversation and potential threats [

Homes equipped with smarter security systems alert the homeowner and local law enforcement when an intruder enters the property since AI can distinguish between occupants and unknown persons.

drones
Drones

Unmanned combat air vehicle is armed with weaponry but has no onboard human pilot.

Currently operational drones are predominantly under real-time human control, though some fly pre-planned routes

First used by Iran in the Iran-Iraq war and now have become ubiquitous in the US fight against terror

A memo was recently linked that outlined some of the uses for drone to kill American citizen tied to terrorist groups in foreign countries. It was highly controversial since it deemed the threat did not have to be imminent for the drones to be employed.

Also, there are private companies who want to commercialize the use of drones for police use, aerial shots for the media, etc.

Many states have begun to pass legislation to regulate any commercial drone use

medicine
Medicine

AI in medicine is already helping doctors detect diseases and save lives.

Cedars-Sinai Medical Center relies on special software to examine the heart and stop heart attacks before they occur

Artificial muscles feature smart technology that allows them to function more like real muscles

Robotic surgery assistants can not only pass the correct tools to doctors, but also keep track of these tools and learn about a doctor's preferences

Software can also tracks changes in health records to diagnose patients or warn doctors of potential risk factors and problems with medications.

robot human species
Robot-Human Species?

Transhumanism represents the ultimate application of artificial intelligence to human life.

As humans incorporate more and more technology into their everyday lives, transhumanism offers the opportunity to eliminate disabilities, slow aging and even stop death. 

Some picture cyborgs, while others picture an entirely new species that people have yet to imagine: a being that's developed beyond the current human state to enjoy a higher level of reasoning, culture and physical capabilities.

Some warn this is a dangerous threat to humanity.

It brings up ethical implications, particularly those related to cloning and eugenics

ethical implications
Ethical Implications

http://www.economist.com/node/21556234

Should AI machines be allowed to make moral decisions (such as in warfare)?

What are the economic impacts?

What about privacy laws?

Should military AI be allowed to become commercial?

Is technolgy advancing faster than our laws can regulate or public opinion coalesce around an issue?

What social rights would AI robotics be granted if any?

Should humanity be allowed to tamper with our biological limitations to the point of eliminating aging?

isaac s asimov s three laws of robotics
Isaac’s Asimov’s Three Laws of Robotics

The most basic governing behavior of AI

The laws are:

“1) A robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm;

2) A robot must obey orders given it by human beings except where such orders

would conflict with the First Law;

3) A robot must protect its own

existence as long as such protection

does not conflict with the

First or Second Law.”

Thus, any possibilities for anti-human action are completely eliminated.

problems w asimov s laws
Problems w/ Asimov’s Laws

Some scientists feel that Asimov’s 50 year old views are unrealistic, and that “The artificial brains that real brain builders will build will not be controllable”

There is no way to predict ahead of time how a complex artificial-brained creature will behave.

Supporters argue other safeguards may be possible such as refusing to give AI any way to directly influence the outside world, or incorporating kill switches

There is still no guarantee that the existence of artificial intelligences would be desirable.

Some people hold religious beliefs that forbid the creation of such a thing, others find the concept instinctually revolting.

MIT Professor Joseph Weizenbaum believes that AI’s will never be able to make decisions as humans can with the same qualities of compassion and wisdom.

bibliography
Bibliography
  • "Artificial Intelligence Patents." Gale Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Detroit: Gale, 2010. Gale Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 4 Jan. 2013.
  • “Philosophical Perspectives on Artificial Intelligence: Ethical Issues.” http://www-cs-faculty.stanford.edu/~eroberts/courses/soco/projects/2004-05/ai/ai-ethics.html: 4 Jan 2013.
  • Turner, Bambi. “10 Ways Artificial Intelligence will Impact Our Lives.” Discovery. www.ds.disovery.com: 4 Jan 2013.