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Cambridge International AS Level Global Perspectives

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  1. Cambridge International AS Level Global Perspectives Introduction

  2. Cambridge International AS Level Global Perspectives

  3. Cambridge International AS Level Global Perspectives

  4. Cambridge International AS Level Global Perspectives

  5. Cambridge International AS Level Global Perspectives

  6. Cambridge International AS Level Global Perspectives

  7. Cambridge International AS Level Global Perspectives

  8. Cambridge International AS Level Global Perspectives

  9. Cambridge International AS Level Global Perspectives • Immediate course goals • Written paper • Candidates will not be assessed on their knowledge and understanding of the specific issues represented in the stimulus material. Instead, candidates will be assessed on their thinking and reasoning skills focused mainly on analysing and evaluating arguments, evidence and contexts.

  10. Cambridge International AS Level Global PerspectivesELEMENTS OF ARGUMENTS

  11. Cambridge International AS Level Global Perspectives What is an argument? • An argument, in Critical Thinking, is not just a conversation in which two people hurl abuse at each other. Neither is it the same thing as straightforward disagreement. • There’s a difference between arguing with someone and merely contradicting them. • As Monty Python’s Argument Clinic sketch puts it, an argument is “a collected series of statements to establish a definite proposition”, an attempt to persuade by offering reasons.

  12. Cambridge International AS Level Global Perspectives The elements of an argument • Any statement that attempts to persuade you that something is true by offering at least one reason for thinking that it is so counts as an argument • The main elements of arguments are reasons and a conclusion • The ability to read a passage and pick out its conclusion and the reasons offered in support of it is perhaps the most basic skill required for Critical Thinking • As you progress to more complicated arguments, you’ll also need to be able to spot intermediate conclusions.

  13. Cambridge International AS Level Global Perspectives Reasons • The reasons (premises) in an argument are the claims made in an attempt to persuade you that the conclusion is true • A test that can help you to identify the reasons in a passage is the ‘because test’. • Simply insert the word “because” into the passage directly before the phrase that you think is a reason. If the passage makes sense, then you’ve probably got the right section. If it doesn’t, then you haven’t.

  14. Cambridge International AS Level Global Perspectives Conclusions • The conclusion of an argument is the main point that it is trying to get you to accept. You’ll often (but not always) find this statement either at the beginning or the end of a passage. It may be indicated by a word such as “therefore”, “thus”, or even “in conclusion”. • A test that can help you to identify the conclusion of a passage is the ‘therefore test’. • Simply insert the word “therefore” into the passage directly before the phrase that you think is the conclusion. If the passage makes sense, then you’ve probably got the right section. If it doesn’t, then you haven’t.

  15. Cambridge International AS Level Global Perspectives TOP TIP • When identifying the reasons or conclusions in a passage in a written answer, you should give direct quotations • If you give a rough paraphrase, then you risk changing the claim, resulting in inaccuracy in your answer and so opening yourself to criticism. • Even missing out a word or two can change the meaning of the conclusion resulting in inaccuracy in your answer.

  16. Cambridge International AS Level Global Perspectives Indicator words • There are certain words that often indicate the presence of a particular element of an argument • Conclusions are often indicated by one of the following words or phrases: • “Therefore”; “thus”; “hence”; “so”; “in conclusion”; “consequently”; “showing that”; “demonstrating that”; “proving that”; “establishing that”; “meaning that”; “entails that”; “implies that”; “as a result”. • “Should”, “must”, and “ought to” may also be treated as indicator words, albeit cautiously. • Indicator words for reasons include the following: • “Because”; “as”; “since”; “in order to”; “otherwise”. • Sometimes authors enumerate their reasons, writing “First, …”, “Second, …”, “Third, …” etc., which can help in their identification.

  17. Cambridge International AS Level Global Perspectives Criteria of credibility • “New numbers just out today show that teenage drivers, the ones with brand new licenses, are more dangerous than anyone thought.” • CNN - PAULA ZAHN NOW • Aired January 18, 2006

  18. Cambridge International AS Level Global Perspectives Criteria of credibility (RAVEN) • R = Reputation (does the source’s history or status suggest reliability or unreliability?) • A = Ability to See (is the source in a position to know what they’re talking about?) • V = Vested Interest (has the source of the information got anything personally at stake?) • E = Expertise (does the source have specialised knowledge and does the situation demand it?) • N = Neutrality (is the source predisposed to support a particular point of view for reasons other than vested interest).

  19. Cambridge International AS Level Global Perspectives Criteria of credibility (RAVEN)

  20. Cambridge International AS Level Global Perspectives Criteria of credibility (RAVEN) • Germany's Angela Merkel • Chancellor of Germany • "We kidded ourselves a while, we said: 'They won't stay, sometime they will be gone', but this isn't reality. And of course, the approach [to build] a multicultural [society] and to live side-by-side and to enjoy each other... has failed, utterly failed."

  21. Cambridge International AS Level Global Perspectives Criteria of credibility (RAVEN) • From Robert Kennedy, former About.com Guide • Most schools have rules about using cell phones. Students are allowed to have them but must abide by the rules concerning when and where to use them. But the bottom line is that having a cell phone is a very good thing.

  22. Cambridge International AS Level Global Perspectives Criteria of credibility • “New numbers just out today show that teenage drivers, the ones with brand new licenses, are more dangerous than anyone thought.” • CNN - PAULA ZAHN NOW • Aired January 18, 2006