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Fly Wheel Essay Question… Write your answer in paragraph format (15 points)!. What lessons on character did Jay (main character) learn during the movie (list at least 3 & explain why )? How can you apply these positive character traits to your own life?.

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fly wheel essay question write your answer in paragraph format 15 points
Fly Wheel Essay Question…Write your answer in paragraph format (15 points)!

What lessons on character did Jay (main character) learn during the movie (list at least 3 & explain why)? How can you apply these positive character traits to your own life?

unit 3 vocabulary ch 22 23
Unit 3 Vocabulary(Ch 22 & 23)

WRITE IN NOTES FOLDER!

  • Stock market
  • Bull market
  • Margin
  • Margin call
  • Speculation
  • Installment
  • Bailiff
  • Shantytown
  • “Hooverville”
  • hobo
  • Dust Bowl
  • Soap opera
  • Public works
  • Relief
  • Foreclose
  • Black Tuesday
  • Hawley-Smoot Tariff
  • Bonus Army
  • Gold standard
  • Fireside chats
  • Deficit spending
  • Binding arbitration
  • Sit-down strike
  • Social Security Act
  • Broker state
  • Safety net
  • New Deal
  • Polio
  • Hundred Days
unit 3 vocabulary pop quiz
Unit 3-Vocabulary Pop Quiz

Directions: Write the correct TERM to complete each sentence.

  • A protest where workers refused to leave the factory
  • Safeguards and relief programs that protected Americans against economic disasters
  • Monthly payment made on a high-cost item
  • Money that went directly to people in poverty
  • Radio talks with President Roosevelt with the American people
  • A time between March 9 and June 16, 1933-Congress passed 15 laws
  • A court official
  • Name given to shantytowns
  • Daytime radio shows that were sponsored by the makers of laundry soaps
  • An unemployed individual who wandered around the country
  • System for buying and selling shares of companies
  • WWI veterans who marched on Washington to demand payments
  • A paralyzing disease
  • An ounce of gold equals a set amount of dollars
  • Borrowing money to pay for programs
warm up question
WARM-UP Question:
  • How important is the Stock Market to the US economy today?
  • How do Americans participate in the stock market?
causes of the great depression
Causes of the Great Depression:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Stock Market Crashes!

the election of 1928
The Election of 1928

Alfred E. Smith:

  • Opposed Prohibition
  • 1stCatholic candidate
  • Democrat
  • Americans feared Pope would rule US
  • Lost election b/c of this

Herbert Hoover:

  • Supported prohibition
  • A Quaker
  • Republican
  • Given credit for prosperity of

1920s

the long bull market
The Long Bull Market
  • Stock market—continued to increase; started as a system for buying and selling shares of companies
  • Bull market—a long period of rising stock prices; many Americans began investing heavily in stocks
  • Margin—investors make a small down payment on the stock, and the stock broker pays for the rest of the loan
  • margin call—when the stockbroker demanded FULL repayment of the loan; investors sold stock quickly and for a lesser value
  • Speculation—buyers wanted to make a quick buck, so they sold their stocks quickly instead on investing in the growth of company
what brought the roaring 20 s to an end
What brought the “Roaring 20’s” to an end?
  • Great Depression –
    • The Great Depression was a massive global economic recession (or "depression") that ran from 1929 to 1941.
    • It led to massive bank failures, high unemployment, as well as dramatic drops in industrial production, stock market share prices and virtually every other measure of economic growth.
    • America's "Great Depression" began with the dramatic crash of the stock market on "Black Tuesday", October 24, 1929 when 16 million shares of stock were quickly sold by panicking investors who had lost faith in the American economy.
causes of the great depression1
Causes of the Great Depression:
  • Buying on margin & margin call – spending money you don’t have never works out well
  • Speculation - buyers wanted to make a quick dollar off company, but it back-fired on them
  • Overproduction of manufactured goods buying on credit: vacuum cleaners, toasters, refrigerators, etc.).
    • Big problem: Installment plans - dn. payment with monthly installments
  • Americans weren’t selling goods to foreign countries
    • Hawley-Smoot Tariff – increased import tax on foreign goods; problem: it also greatly decreased sale of US goods to foreign countries (made depression worse)
  • The Federal Reserve lowered interest rates (encouraged banks to make risky loans)
  • Increased unemployment—companies cut their cost and laid off workers
unit 3 notes quiz 1 directions write the letter only of the correct sentence
Unit 3-Notes Quiz #1Directions: Write the letter ONLY of the correct sentence!
  • A system for buying and selling shares of companies
  • A long period of rising stock prices; many Americans began investing heavily in stocks
  • When the stockbroker demanded FULL repayment of the loan; investors sold stock quickly and for a lesser value
  • Buyers wanted to make a quick buck, so they sold their stocks quickly instead on investing in the growth of company
  • Overproduction of ___________ & buying on credit: vacuum cleaners, toasters, refrigerators, etc.).
  • Hawley-Smoot __________ – increased import tax on foreign goods
  • Who encouraged banks to make risky loans?
  • He lost the Election of 1928 for being Catholic.
  • Companies cut their cost and laid off workers, which increased ________.
  • The _______ was a massive global economic recession that ran from 1929 to 1941.
  • America's "Great Depression" began with the dramatic crash of the stock market on “_________", October 24, 1929.
  • Stock market
  • Unemployment
  • Manufactured Goods
  • Black Tuesday
  • Herbert Hoover
  • Bull market
  • Margin
  • Margin call
  • Speculation
  • Federal Reserve
  • Black Friday
  • Alfred E. Smith
  • Tariffs
  • Great Depression
unit 3 notes quiz 1 directions write the letter only of the correct sentence1
Unit 3-Notes Quiz #1Directions: Write the letter ONLY of the correct sentence!
  • A system for buying and selling shares of companies
  • A long period of rising stock prices; many Americans began investing heavily in stocks
  • When the stockbroker demanded FULL repayment of the loan; investors sold stock quickly and for a lesser value
  • Buyers wanted to make a quick buck, so they sold their stocks quickly instead on investing in the growth of company
  • Overproduction of ___________ & buying on credit: vacuum cleaners, toasters, refrigerators, etc.).
  • Hawley-Smoot __________ – increased import tax on foreign goods
  • Who encouraged banks to make risky loans?
  • He lost the Election of 1928 for being Catholic.
  • Companies cut their cost and laid off workers, which increased ________.
  • The _______ was a massive global economic recession that ran from 1929 to 1941.
  • America's "Great Depression" began with the dramatic crash of the stock market on “_________", October 24, 1929.
  • Stock market
  • Unemployment
  • Manufactured Goods
  • Black Tuesday
  • Herbert Hoover
  • Bull market
  • Margin
  • Margin call
  • Speculation
  • Federal Reserve
  • Black Friday
  • Alfred E. Smith
  • Tariffs
  • Great Depression
walt disney
Walt Disney
  • List the Walt Disney films discussed in the short movie?
  • Why do you think Walt Disney’s films are so successful, then and now?
warm up
Warm-up:
  • What images come to mind when you hear the words Great Depression?
  • Where do you think these images come from?
art reflects depression
Art Reflects Depression:

(Give a name and description of their art…)

Painting

1.

Writing

2.

3.

Photography

4.

the great depression worsens
The Great Depression Worsens
  • The Depression grew worse during President Hoover’s administration
    • Thousands of banks & companies failed and went out of business
    • Many were unemployed and hungry
    • Bread lines & soup kitchens served the poor
hoovervilles
Hoovervilles
  • Many people could not pay their rent or mortgage and lost their homes
  • Baliffs-court officials who threw people out on the street
  • Shantytowns-unused public lands where people stayed
  • Hoovervilles-name given for shantytowns; they blamed Hoover
  • Hobos-homeless and unemployed people who wandered around the country
dust bowl
Dust Bowl
  • Many farmers left their crops in the 1920s when stock prices decreased
  • 1932-Great Plains experienced a severe drought
  • Dust Bowl-winds blew the dry, unplanted soil across the GP blackening the sky for 100s of miles
  • Many people traveled to California for a new life, but remained homeless
escaping the depression
Escaping the Depression
  • Many Americans needed entertainment to escape their problems
  • European actors like Greta Garbo & Marlene Dietrich became superstars
  • Walt Disney-produced 1st animated film
  • Soap operas-daytime radio dramas that appealed to wives (sponsored by laundry soap comp)
the depression in art
The Depression in Art
  • Art and literature of the 1930s showed what life was like in the Depression
  • Grant Wood-painter who showed traditional American values of the rural Midwest and South
  • John Steinbeck-novelist who wrote about the lives of people in the Depression (The Grapes of Wrath)
  • William Faulkner-writer who showed what his characters were thinking even before they spoke it (stream of consciousness)
  • Dorthea Lange – popular photographer (migrant mother)
unit 3 notes quiz 2
Unit 3-Notes Quiz #2

NO

QUIZ

TODAY!

(Exchange & Complete

student crossword puzzles)

slide25
Great Depression Essay QuestionDirections: Write an essay using the following topics in paragraph format! (25 POINTS!)

Paragraph 1:

  • Black Tuesday
  • Election of 1928
  • Causes of the Great Depression
  • Herbert Hoover’s solutions

Paragraph 2:

  • Walt Disney
  • “Hoovervilles”
  • Hobos
  • Dust Bowl
  • Angry Americans/Protest

IMPORTANT:

“I think, I believe, In my opinion”

slide26
Bonus Army ProtestWhat did the bonus army want? Army wanted…How did Hoover/gov’t. respond? Hoover’s response…
warm up question1
Warm-up Question:
  • What issues have people or groups protested about in recent years?
  • What issues do you think are important enough to protest for?
hoover promotes recovery
Hoover Promotes Recovery
  • The president was very worried about the economy
  • He held meetings with banks, businesses, government officials, and labor
  • Big businesses broke their promise to the president to stop firing workers
  • Public works-government-financed building projects; Hoover tried to increase construction jobs
  • Made changes on the government tax plan
  • None of these plans worked!
pumping money into the economy government programs
Pumping money into the economy: Government Programs
  • Hoover used several strategies to pump money back into the economy:
    • National Credit Corporation (NCC)-(1931) a voluntary lending organization (mostly NY bankers, but they did not contribute enough)
    • Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC)-government funded lending agency (since private lenders would not help)—banks, railroads, and farmers got most of the money. This was not enough either
    • Emergency Relief & Construction Act—Hoover wanted the federal government to participate in relief; this provided direct relief to states; this program was also too late to stop the GD.
angry americans
Angry Americans
  • Movements for change were occurring all around America during the 1930s:
    • Dec. 1932-crowds began to form rallies and “hunger marches”
    • Between 1930-1934 almost one million farmers lost their farms and forced off their land—they protested, burned their crops (hoping to drive the prices up)
    • Bonus Army—fought for a bill that would pay $1000 WWI veterans bonus EARLY. Senate voted it down, many vets protested and settled around Washington.
    • Hoover ordered the police to remove the army and many vets were killed during the removal
    • Americans began to dislike Hoover and were upset with him
unit 3 vocabulary ch 22 231
Unit 3 Vocabulary(Ch 22 & 23)

WRITE IN NOTES FOLDER!

  • Stock market
  • Bull market
  • Margin
  • Margin call
  • Speculation
  • Installment
  • Bailiff
  • Shantytown
  • “Hooverville”
  • hobo
  • Dust Bowl
  • Soap opera
  • Public works
  • Relief
  • Foreclose
  • Black Tuesday
  • Hawley-Smoot Tariff
  • Bonus Army
  • Gold standard
  • Fireside chats
  • Deficit spending
  • Binding arbitration
  • Sit-down strike
  • Social Security Act
  • Broker state
  • Safety net
  • New Deal
  • Polio
  • Hundred Days
slide35
Great Depression Essay QuestionDirections: Write an essay using the following topics in paragraph format! (25 POINTS!)

Paragraph 1:

  • Black Tuesday
  • Election of 1928
  • Causes of the Great Depression
  • Herbert Hoover’s solutions

Paragraph 2:

  • Walt Disney
  • “Hoovervilles”
  • Hobos
  • Dust Bowl
  • Angry Americans/Protest

IMPORTANT:

“I think, I believe, In my opinion”

patriotism
Patriotism

Strong loyalty or belief in one’s own country; to defend one’s country

  • PERSONAL EXAMPLE…
video w notes the new deal
Video (w/ Notes): The New Deal

Column 1:

How did Roosevelt’s New Deal affect American life?

Column 2:

What major changes in America(protests, strikes, disagreements, etc.) did people experience during this era?

*Don’t just write a word, describe what it is!

video the new deal
Video: The New Deal
  • Hundred Days
  • FDR’s fireside chats
  • Wagner Act
  • SSA
  • New Deal Coalition
  • African-Americans
  • Women
  • Role of first lady
  • FDR vs. Supreme Court
  • Effects of the New Deal
slide40
Great Depression Essay QuestionDirections: Write an essay using the following topics in paragraph format! (25 POINTS!)

Paragraph 1:

  • Black Tuesday
  • Election of 1928
  • Causes of the Great Depression
  • Herbert Hoover’s solutions

Paragraph 2:

  • Walt Disney
  • “Hoovervilles”
  • Hobos
  • Dust Bowl
  • Angry Americans/Protest

IMPORTANT:

“I think, I believe, In my opinion”

slide41
Today you will learn about the characteristics of Franklin Roosevelt, and how the banking situation of the 1930s worsened.

Roosevelt takes office (23-1)

roosevelt s rise of power
Roosevelt’s Rise of Power
  • 1932-many voters were against President Hoover, who was the Republican candidate
  • Democratic candidate-Franklin Delano Roosevelt (governor from NY)
  • New Deal-Roosevelt’s programs for ending the Great Depression
fdr background
FDR: Background
  • Distant cousin of President Theodore Roosevelt
  • Born into a wealthy NY family
  • Educated at Harvard and Columbia University
  • Roosevelt was a senator, asst. secretary of the navy, vice presidential candidate
  • Polio-a paralyzing disease, Roosevelt was struck with it
  • Became governor of NY
  • 1931-Roosevelt helped pass legislation to help NY workers…this made him popular
  • 1932-Roosevelt nominated for president…he was seen as very optimistic; elected November 1932
roosevelt is inaugurated
Roosevelt is Inaugurated
  • Continued GD (Bank) problems:
    • Unemployment rose
    • Bank runs increased
  • people feared Roosevelt would get rid of the gold standard and lower the American $
  • Many Americans took their money out of the banks and trade it for gold before it lost value
  • March 1933-over 4000 banks collapsed
  • Governors declared Bank holidays (38 states)—closed banks before people could make a run on them out of business
unit 3 notes quiz 31
Unit 3 Notes Quiz #3
  • What political party was Herbert Hoover apart of?
  • What political party was FDR apart of?
  • FDR was a governor from what state?
  • Roosevelt’s programs for ending the Great Depression…
  • Distant cousin of President Theodore Roosevelt
  • A paralyzing disease
  • Roosevelt’s attitude was seen as _________.
  • President Hoover’s attitude was seen as a ___________.
  • The biggest problem FDR faced at the beginning of the Great Depression dealt with what industry?
  • People feared Roosevelt would get rid of the ________ and lower the American $.
  • Polio
  • Great Compromise
  • optimistic
  • Democrat
  • Republican
  • Washington DC
  • Automobile
  • realistic
  • Independent
  • The New Deal
  • Paralisystem
  • Banks
  • NY
  • Railroads
  • Gold standard
  • Eleanor Roosevelt
  • Susan Roosevelt
new deal programs
New Deal Programs

Banks and Stock Market

1.

2.

3.

Debt Relief

6.

7.

Farms and Industry

4.

5.

Spending and Relief Programs

8.

9.

hundred days
Hundred Days
  • Once Roosevelt came into office, he began sending bill after bill to Congress
  • Hundred Days—March 9 – June 16, 1933 when Congress passed 15 major laws to deal with the economy—the First New Deal
the roosevelt approach
The Roosevelt Approach
  • Roosevelt was willing experiment and try several approaches to solve the economic problems
  • Advised by people from various backgrounds
  • Chose people who disagreed with each other so he could hear different points of view
  • Roosevelt always made the final decision!
roosevelt s advisors
Roosevelt's Advisors

3 groups:

  • Theodore Roosevelt’s ideas: government and business should work together to fix the economy
  • Big business haters: blamed big business for the depression, and wanted government to run things
  • President Wilson’s ideas: large trusts were to blame; wanted Roosevelt to break up all big companies
fixing banks and the stock market
Fixing banks and the stock market
  • Emergency Banking Relief Act: said that federal officials would check the nation’s banks and give licenses to those that were financially sound
  • Fireside chat—first one took place March 12, 1933…talked to the people about the banking relief act
  • Securities Act—stockbrokers had to disclose full information to their clients
  • Glass-Steagall Act—seperated commercial banks from investment banks
  • Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)—provided government insurance on bank deposits up to a certain amount
managing farms and industry
Managing Farms and Industry
  • Roosevelt believed that farmers and businesses were suffering because prices were too low and production was too high
  • Agricultural Investment Act (AAA)—the government would pay farmers not to grow certain crops and certain livestock
  • National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA)—allowed business, labor, and government to cooperate in setting up voluntary rules for each industry—”codes of fair competition. Companies that signed up received more business than others that didn’t
  • National Recovery Administration (NRA)—not very successful—companies disliked price fixing, employers disliked unions, codes were difficult to enforce so many companies ignored them
debt relief
Debt Relief
  • Many people believed debt was standing in the way of economic recovery
  • Home Owner’s Loan Corporation (HOLC)—it purchased the loans from homeowners who were behind in their payments and lowered their payments
    • It only help the employed
    • 1 in 5 employed people received assistance
  • Farm Credit Administration (FCA)—helped farmers refinance their mortgages and keep their land
spending and relief programs
Spending and relief programs
  • Many advisors thought that not buying enough cause the GD
  • They urged FDR that the best way to get out of debt was provide money for the people and spend, but people needed jobs to do this

Programs for the unemployed:

  • Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)—employed young men 18-25 for the national forestry service; planted trees, built reservoirs & fought fires; men lived in camps; earned $30/month
spending and relief programs1
Spending and relief programs
  • Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA)—provide money to local agencies to pay for their relief projects
  • Public Works Administration (PWA)—employed construction workers; set up a series of construction projects-improving highways, dams, sewer systems, and water works. It did insist contractors hire African-American workers-broke racial barriers
  • Civil Works Administration (CWA)—hired 4 million federal workers to build airports, roads, schools, and playgrounds; spent too much money so FDR shut is down after 5 months-4 million workers fired
23 3 notes homework
23-3 Notes—HOMEWORK!!!
  • Deficit spending
  • American Liberty League
  • Huey Long
  • Father Charles Coughlin
  • Dr. Francis Townsend
  • Second New Deal
  • Works Progress Administration (WPA)
  • Why did the Supreme Court strike down the NIRA?
  • National Labor Relations Board (NLRB)
  • Binding arbitration
  • Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO)
  • United Auto Workers (UAW)
  • Social Securities Act
23 3 notes
23-3 Notes
  • Deficit spending—many people opposed FDR’s policies because he ended the balanced budget and began to borrow $ to pay for his government programs

New Deal Opponents:

  • American Liberty League—an organization to oppose the New Deal; formed by politicians and business leaders
  • Huey Long—senator from Louisiana; one of FDR’s biggest critics; he fought for the poor and opposed the rich; wanted to run for president
  • Father Charles Coughlin—Catholic priest from Detroit; called for huge taxes on the wealthy; est. an organization that supported Huey Long
  • Dr. Francis Townsend—proposed the federal government pay a pension to every citizen age 60+, $200/month
23 3 notes1
23-3 Notes
  • Second New Deal—election strategy; solution to bring economic recovery (which 1st New Deal did not solve)
  • Works Progress Administration (WPA)—provided 8.5 million jobs to build roads, public buildings, & parks. Gave jobs to artists and writers, and musicians (murals, sculptures, symphonies, etc.)
  • Why did the Supreme Court strike down the NIRA? Not constitutional
  • National Labor Relations Board (NLRB)—Wagner Act; guaranteed workers union rights and collective bargaining; used secret ballots for voting to protect workers
  • Binding arbitration—a neutral party would listen to both sides and decide on the issue
  • Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO)—organized industrial unions both skilled and unskilled
  • United Auto Workers (UAW)—one of the most powerful auto unions in America due to the CIO policies
23 3 notes2
23-3 Notes
  • Social Securities Act—
    • provided security for the unemployed workers and elderly;
    • welfare payments to the needy
    • Paid monthly retirement benefit (age 65+)
    • Provided unemployment insurance while searching for new work
    • Left out farm/domestic workers (65% of African-Americans)
    • Also helped people who were physically unable to work
unit 3 notes quiz 4 open notes
Unit 3 Notes Quiz #4 (OPEN NOTES)
  • March 9 – June 16, 1933 when Congress passed 15 major laws to deal with the economy
  • said that federal officials would check the nation’s banks and give licenses to those that were financially sound
  • separated commercial banks from investment banks
  • provided government insurance on bank deposits up to a certain amount
  • the government would pay farmers not to grow certain crops and certain livestock
  • allowed business, labor, and government to cooperate in setting up voluntary rules for each industry
  • provide money to local agencies to pay for their relief projects
  • employed construction workers; set up a series of construction projects-improving highways, dams, sewer systems, and water works.
  • hired 4 million federal workers to build airports, roads, schools, and playgrounds;
  • many people opposed FDR’s policies because he ended the balanced budget and began to borrow $ to pay for his government programs
  • an organization to oppose the New Deal; formed by politicians and business leaders
  • senator from Louisiana; one of FDR’s biggest critics; he fought for the poor and opposed the rich; wanted to run for president
  • proposed the federal government pay a pension to every citizen age 60+, $200/month
  • Wagner Act; guaranteed workers union rights and collective bargaining; used secret ballots for voting to protect workers
  • a neutral party would listen to both sides and decide on the issue
  • organized industrial unions both skilled and unskilled
  • one of the most powerful auto unions in America due to the CIO policies
  • provided security for the unemployed workers and elderly; welfare payments to the needy
  • Hundred Days
  • Firside Chat
  • Emergency Banking Relief Act
  • Glass-Steagall Act
  • UAW
  • FDIC
  • AAA
  • NIRA
  • FERA
  • PWA
  • CWA
  • Deficit spending
  • American Liberty League
  • Huey Long
  • Dr. Townsend
  • NLRB
  • CIO
  • Binding arbitration
  • SSA
23 4 notes list
23-4 Notes List:
  • Francis Perkins—first woman apppointed to a presidential cabinet; FDR won the support of African-Am. and women; he also appt. women in fed jobs
  • Alfred Landon—Kansas governor (Rep.) for presidential election; he attacked the New Deal ideas (bad move), but because of the ND’s popularity FDR won by a landslide
  • Supreme Court vs. AAA—Supreme Court declared AAA unconstitutional (1936); FDR tried packing the SC but failed
  • “Court-packing”—if any justice served for 10 years and did not retire after age 70 then another SC justice would be added within 6 months
23 4 notes list1
23-4 Notes List:
  • New Deal Problems—court packing in the SC, Some New Deal programs were unconstitutional, Democratic party split over SC issue, split Congress, too much deficit spending, increased unemployment

To spend, or not to spend…

  • Henry Morgenthau—Secretary of Treasury who wanted to balance the budget by cutting spending
  • John Maynard Keys—his theory propose that in a recession gov’t should increase spending and even go into debt to jump start the economy
23 4 notes list2
23-4 Notes List:
  • National Housing Act—plan to provide better housing for the poor; the bill turned slums into low-cost homes
  • Farm Security Administration—gave money to tenant farmers so they wouldn’t lose their farms b/c of AAA
  • Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938—more protection for workers…abolished child labor & 40-hr work week
  • Legacy of the New Deal
    • New Deal era ended in 1939 (Rep. won the Congress)
    • Business leaders, farmers, workers, and consumers all looking to fed fov’t for protection
    • SC help fed gov’t gain power
    • Government became a mediator
    • Broker state—working out problems w/ different interests
    • Safety net—ND programs provided this for avg. Americans and protected them from disaster
essay questions ch 23 answer both questions open notes
Essay Questions (Ch. 23)ANSWER BOTH QUESTIONS(OPEN NOTES)

1. Describe Franklin Roosevelt’s personality and approach to the nation’s problems (Hint: attitude, chats, 100 days).

2. Describe the provisions of the National Labor Relations Act (NLRB) and the work of the board it created (Hint: arbitration, unions, factory voting).

essay answers
Essay Answers
  • Americans saw in Roosevelt an energy and optimism that gave them hope despite the tough economic times. His serenity and confidence amazed many people, and his “fireside chats” helped reassure them. Also, many people believed that his struggle with polio had given him a better understanding of their hardships. Roosevelt’s confidence that he could make things better contrasted sharply with Hoover’s apparent failure to do anything effective. In his campaign for president, Roosevelt revealed the approach he would take as president: “Above all, try something.” He implemented his campaign promise with a flurry of bills to Congress during the first “Hundred Days.” Unlike the public impression of Hoover, Roosevelt was “doing something.”
  • The act guaranteed workers the right to organize unions without interference from employers and to bargain collectively. The law set up the National Labor Relations Board, which organized factory elections by secret ballot to determine whether workers wanted a union. The NLRB then certified the successful unions. The new law also set up a process whereby dissatisfied union members could take their complaints to binding arbitration, in which a neutral party would listen to both sides and decide the issues. The NLRB was authorized to investigate the actions of employers and could issue “cease and desist” orders against unfair practices.