Welcome Neighbors? New evidence on the possibility of stable racial integration. by Ingrid Gould Ellen THE BROOKINGS REVIEW Winter 1997 Vol.15 No.1 pp. 18-21. Conventional Wisdom.
by Ingrid Gould Ellen
THE BROOKINGS REVIEW
Winter 1997 Vol.15 No.1
The conventional wisdom on racial integration in the United States is that there are three kinds of neighborhoods: the all-white neighborhood, the all-black neighborhood, and the exceedingly rare, highly unstable, racially mixed neighborhood. The only real disagreement is about why so few neighborhoods are successfully integrated.
Some attribute it to white discrimination pure and simple: whites, that is, have consciously and determinedly excluded blacks from their communities. Others contend that it is a matter of minority choice. Like Norwegians in Brooklyn's Bay Ridge and Italians in Manhattan's Little Italy, African Americans, they explain, prefer to live among their own kind. Finally, others maintain that segregation is driven mainly by income differences across racial groups.
But almost all agree that when African Americans do manage to gain a foothold in a previously all-white community, the whites move away in droves—a phenomenon well known as "white flight." Integration is no more than, in the words of Saul Alinsky, the "time between when the first black moves in and last white moves out."
1. Those who are less invested in structural strength of community may be more open to racial mixing, more likely to live in mixed neighborhoods. These are renters, people w/o children.
2. Racial concerns may be more important to those about to move in, than to those thinking about moving out.
3. Racial mixing should be more stable in communities that seem “sheltered” in some way from quick racial change.
D(Inc) = DX + mDX + m2DX + … + mnDX (1)
mD(Inc) = mDX + m2DX + m3DX + … + mn+1DX (2)
Subtract (1) - (2)
D(Inc) - mD(Inc) = DX - mn+1DX
D(Inc) (1 - m) = DX (1 - mn+1)
As n gets large, mn+1 goes to 0.
D(Inc) = DX/(1 - m).
It’s like macroeconomic multipliers.
Slope of line
Direct + Ind. Inc.