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Summary Strategy

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  1. Summary Strategy (Adapted from: Brown & Day, 1983; Cordero-Ponce, 2000; Klinger, 2011)

  2. Strategy Steps (Adapted from: Brown & Day, 1983; Cordero-Ponce, 2000; Klinger, 2011) • Place all gists on one page • Deletion • Delete unnecessary words • Delete redundant words • Substitution/Collapsing • Substitute superordinate terms for categories/lists • Combine two gists that say the same thing • Topic Sentence • Select one from the gists • If one does not exist create one • Synthesize remaining gists into a paragraph

  3. Deletion (Adapted from: Brown & Day, 1983; Cordero-Ponce, 2000; Klinger, 2011) • Summaries are a synthesis of the most important points in the text • Delete trivial information – the summary is about generalizing, not details • Delete unnecessary words (this may include conjunctions, prepositions, personal pronouns, and articles). • Summaries are meant to be short • Delete redundant information (e.g. “Two of your gists mention the purpose of the scientific method, this point should only be included once in the summary.”).

  4. Substitution/Collapsing (Adapted from: Brown & Day, 1983; Cordero-Ponce, 2000; Klinger, 2011) Substitute superordinate terms for lists Treesfor pines, oaks, and maples Houseworkfor vacuuming, dusting, and laundry

  5. Topic Sentences (Adapted from: Brown & Day, 1983; Cordero-Ponce, 2000; Klinger, 2011) • Topic sentences should summarize the entire paragraph and contain essential information • Review the gists to determine if one fits as a topic sentence • If none of the gists fit, then create your own topic sentence

  6. Synthesizing (Adapted from: Brown & Day, 1983; Cordero-Ponce, 2000; Klinger, 2011) • Place remaining gists below the topic sentence in order • Read the summary • Again, look for gists that could be combined • Does it need a closing statement?

  7. Polish the Summary (Adapted from: Brown & Day, 1983; Cordero-Ponce, 2000; Klinger, 2011) • Read the summary again • Does it make sense? • Did I leave out any important information? • Is everything in the summary essential? • Does it need connecting/transition words (e.g. and or because)? • Upon completion of previous steps • Reread the summary again • Does it sound natural?

  8. References (Adapted from: Brown & Day, 1983; Cordero-Ponce, 2000; Klinger, 2011) Brown, A. L. & Day, J. D. (1983). Macrorules for summarizing texts: The developmental expertise. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 22, 1-14. Cordero-Ponce, W. L. (2000). Summarization instruction: Effects on foreign language comprehension and summarization of expository texts, Literacy Research and Instruction, 39, 329-250. Klingner, J. K., Morrison, A., & Eppolito, A. (2011). Metacognition to improve reading comprehension. In O’Connor, R. E. & Vadasy, P. F. (Ed.), Handbook of Reading Interventions ( pp. 220-253).New York, NY: Guilford Press