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Prevention Diabetes. Dr Abir Youssef. What is diabetes. Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition that characterised by raised plasma glucose levels.  Diabetes, results from the body’s inability to produce or use insulin properly, resulting in high levels of blood sugar. .

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prevention diabetes

Prevention Diabetes

Dr Abir Youssef

what is diabetes
What is diabetes

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition that characterised by raised plasma glucose levels. 

Diabetes, results from the body’s inability to produce or use insulin properly, resulting in high levels of blood sugar. 

classification of diabetes
Classification of diabetes
  • Type 2 diabetes is caused by a combination of insulin resistance and some degree of insulin deficiency.
  • Type 1, the body produces no insulin. More than 80% of recognised diabetes is Type 2 and most of the remainder is Type 1.
classification of diabetes1
Classification of diabetes
  • Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) developing during some cases of pregnancy but usually disappears after pregnancy.
  • Impaired glucose regulation/Impaired fasting glucose
  • Other rare forms include maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY)
diabetes the size of the problem
Diabetes: the size of the problem

WHO estimate: prevalence of diabetes for all age- groups worldwide was estimated to be 2.8% in 2000 and 4.4% in 2030.

  • Estimated rise in number from 171 million in 2000 to 366 million in 2030.
  • 150% rise in developing countries by 2030.
  • Number of deaths attributed to diabetes was previously estimated at just over 800,000.
the costs of diabetes
The costs of diabetes
  • Direct costs:
    • Direct costs to individuals and their families include medical care, drugs, insulin and other supplies
    • Direct costs to the healthcare sector include hospital services, physician services, …
    • Overall, direct health care costs of diabetes range from 2.5% to 15% annual health care budgets, depending on local diabetes prevalence and the sophistication of the treatment available.
the costs of diabetes1
The costs of diabetes
  • Indirect costs:
    • Sickness, absence, disability, premature retirement or premature mortality can cause loss of productivity.
    • Estimating the cost to society of this loss of productivity is not easy. Pain, anxiety, inconvenience and other factors which decrease quality of life are intangible costs, which are just as heavy.
facts on prevention diabetes
Facts on Prevention Diabetes

The heavy social and economic costs

of type 2 diabetes

(including its role in other diseases,

such as heart disease

and stroke) mean that primary

prevention must be a priority.

facts on prevention diabetes1
Facts on Prevention Diabetes

pre-diabetes can prevent the development of type 2 diabetes by making changes in their lifestyle.

Effective prevention also means more cost-effective healthcare.

facts on prevention diabetes2
Facts on Prevention Diabetes
  • Primary prevention protects susceptible individuals from developing diabetes. It has an impact by reducing or delaying both the need for diabetes care and the need to treat diabetes complications.
facts on prevention diabetes3
Facts on Prevention Diabetes
  • Secondary prevention includes early detection, prevention and treatment. Appropriate action taken at the right time is beneficial in terms of quality of life, and is cost-effective, especially if it can prevent hospital admission
primary prevention
Primary prevention

Primary prevention

Weight

Loss

Stop

Smoking

Physical

Activity

primary prevention1
Primary prevention
  • Lifestyle Changes Can Prevent Diabetes
  • Weight Loss Is Accompanied by Considerable Lowering of the Risk of Diabetes
  • Physical Activity and Diabetes Prevention
  • Smoking Predisposes to Type 2 Diabetes
taking action to prevent diabetes
Taking Action to Prevent Diabetes

Change will come more easily if everyone is involved.

weight loss is accompanied by considerable lowering of the risk of diabetes
Weight Loss Is Accompanied by Considerable Lowering of the Risk of Diabetes

1. Body-Mass Index: Obesity in adults is assessed using the body-mass index (BMI = body weight in kg divided by the square of body height in meters) The higher the body-mass index, the higher the morbidity and mortality risks become.

The risk of diabetes increases 15-fold as the body-mass index rises from 23 kg/m2 to 35 kg/m2.

weight loss is accompanied by considerable lowering of the risk of diabetes1
Weight Loss Is Accompanied by Considerable Lowering of the Risk of Diabetes

2. Waist Circumference

  • The body-mass index does not indicate the distribution of body fat, and waist circumference is therefore also used as a measure of obesity and the associated health risks.
weight loss is accompanied by considerable lowering of the risk of diabetes2
Weight Loss Is Accompanied by Considerable Lowering of the Risk of Diabetes

Treatment of obesity will prevent illness development in individuals at risk and improve quality of life and prevent late complications in those already affected.

In recent years, attention has been increasingly focused on the incidence of central obesity which has been found to strongly predict risks of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome.

physical activity and diabetes prevention
Physical Activity and Diabetes Prevention
  • Physical activity decreases insulin resistance and can aid in both preventing type 2 diabetes mellitus and managing the disease.
  • Physical activity has an insulin-like effect -- it can help lower blood sugar levels.
  • Epidemiological studies suggest that physical activity can reduce the risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes by up to 50 percent.
smoking predisposes to type 2 diabetes
Smoking Predisposes to Type 2 Diabetes
  • Studies shown correlation between smoking and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
    • The risk is dose-dependent: the longer you smoke, the higher the risk.
recommendations
Recommendations

Change will come more easily if everyone is involved.

  • prevention diabetes can be on different levels; individuals, community, local government and national levels.
recommendations1
Recommendations
  • The government should work to reduce health inequality and improve the environment factor by improving the deprived areas and controlling safety and making the streets safe for walking or cycling to school or the workplace, promoting and improving access to sport and leisure facilities, as well as encouraging physical activity
recommendation
Recommendation
  • Parents of overweight children should be helped to take responsibility and encourage healthy eating and physical activity.
  • Anti- smoking behaviour should be promoted by implementing legal action.
conclusions
Conclusions

Understanding environmental factors can contribute to a better understanding of the nature of diabetes as well as contribute to tackling it.

A healthy population requires a healthy environment where all have the ability and opportunity to follow a healthy lifestyle.