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Formed elements. Plasma. • 55% of whole blood • Least dense component. Buffy coat. • Leukocytes and platelets • <1% of whole blood. Erythrocytes. 2. • 45% of whole blood • Most dense component. 1. Centrifuge the blood sample. Withdraw blood and place in tube.

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slide1

Formed

elements

Plasma

• 55% of whole blood

• Least dense component

Buffy coat

• Leukocytes and platelets

• <1% of whole blood

Erythrocytes

2

• 45% of whole blood

• Most dense

component

1

Centrifuge the

blood sample.

Withdraw

blood and place

in tube.

Figure 17.1

slide3

Platelets

Erythrocytes

Monocyte

Neutrophils

Lymphocyte

Figure 17.2

slide4

2.5 µm

Side view (cut)

7.5 µm

Top view

Figure 17.3

slide5

bGlobin chains

Heme

group

a Globin chains

(a) Hemoglobin consists of globin (two

alpha and two beta polypeptide

chains) and four heme groups.

(b) Iron-containing heme pigment.

Figure 17.4

slide6

Stem cell

Committed

cell

Developmental pathway

Phase 1

Ribosome

synthesis

Phase 2

Hemoglobin

accumulation

Phase 3

Ejection of

nucleus

Reticulo-

cyte

Erythro-

cyte

Proerythro-

blast

Early

erythroblast

Late

erythroblast

Normoblast

Hemocytoblast

Figure 17.5

slide7

IMBALANCE

Homeostasis: Normal blood oxygen levels

1

Stimulus:

Hypoxia (low blood

O2- carrying ability)

due to

• DecreasedRBC count

• Decreased amountof hemoglobin

• Decreasedavailability of O2

5

O2- carryingability of bloodincreases.

IMBALANCE

4

Enhancederythropoiesisincreases RBCcount.

2

Kidney (and liver toa smaller extent)releaseserythropoietin.

3

Erythropoietinstimulates redbone marrow.

Figure 17.6

slide8

IMBALANCE

Homeostasis: Normal blood oxygen levels

1

Stimulus:

Hypoxia (low blood

O2- carrying ability)

due to

• DecreasedRBC count

• Decreased amountof hemoglobin

• Decreasedavailability of O2

IMBALANCE

Figure 17.6, step 1

slide9

IMBALANCE

Homeostasis: Normal blood oxygen levels

1

Stimulus:

Hypoxia (low blood

O2- carrying ability)

due to

• DecreasedRBC count

• Decreased amountof hemoglobin

• Decreasedavailability of O2

IMBALANCE

2

Kidney (and liver toa smaller extent)releaseserythropoietin.

Figure 17.6, step 2

slide10

IMBALANCE

Homeostasis: Normal blood oxygen levels

1

Stimulus:

Hypoxia (low blood

O2- carrying ability)

due to

• DecreasedRBC count

• Decreased amountof hemoglobin

• Decreasedavailability of O2

IMBALANCE

2

Kidney (and liver toa smaller extent)releaseserythropoietin.

3

Erythropoietinstimulates redbone marrow.

Figure 17.6, step 3

slide11

IMBALANCE

Homeostasis: Normal blood oxygen levels

1

Stimulus:

Hypoxia (low blood

O2- carrying ability)

due to

• DecreasedRBC count

• Decreased amountof hemoglobin

• Decreasedavailability of O2

IMBALANCE

4

Enhancederythropoiesisincreases RBCcount.

2

Kidney (and liver toa smaller extent)releaseserythropoietin.

3

Erythropoietinstimulates redbone marrow.

Figure 17.6, step 4

slide12

IMBALANCE

Homeostasis: Normal blood oxygen levels

1

Stimulus:

Hypoxia (low blood

O2- carrying ability)

due to

• DecreasedRBC count

• Decreased amountof hemoglobin

• Decreasedavailability of O2

5

O2- carryingability of bloodincreases.

IMBALANCE

4

Enhancederythropoiesisincreases RBCcount.

2

Kidney (and liver toa smaller extent)releaseserythropoietin.

3

Erythropoietinstimulates redbone marrow.

Figure 17.6, step 5

slide13

1

Low O2levels in blood stimulate

kidneys to produce erythropoietin.

2

Erythropoietin levels rise

in blood.

3

Erythropoietin and necessary

raw materials in blood promote

erythropoiesis in red bone marrow.

4

New erythrocytes

enter bloodstream;

function about 120 days.

5

Aged and damaged

red blood cells are

engulfed by macrophages

of liver, spleen, and bone

marrow; the hemoglobin

is broken down.

Hemoglobin

Heme

Globin

Bilirubin

Amino

acids

Iron stored

as ferritin,

hemosiderin

Iron is bound to

transferrin and released

to blood from liver as

needed for erythropoiesis.

Bilirubin is picked up from blood

by liver, secreted into intestine in

bile, metabolized to stercobilin by

bacteria, and excreted in feces.

Circulation

Food nutrients,

including amino acids,

Fe, B12, and folic acid,

are absorbed from

intestine and enter

blood.

6

Raw materials are

made available in blood

for erythrocyte synthesis.

Figure 17.7

slide14

1

Low O2levels in blood stimulate

kidneys to produce erythropoietin.

Figure 17.7, step 1

slide15

1

Low O2levels in blood stimulate

kidneys to produce erythropoietin.

2

Erythropoietin levels rise

in blood.

Figure 17.7, step 2

slide16

1

Low O2levels in blood stimulate

kidneys to produce erythropoietin.

2

Erythropoietin levels rise

in blood.

3

Erythropoietin and necessary

raw materials in blood promote

erythropoiesis in red bone marrow.

Figure 17.7, step 3

slide17

1

Low O2levels in blood stimulate

kidneys to produce erythropoietin.

2

Erythropoietin levels rise

in blood.

3

Erythropoietin and necessary

raw materials in blood promote

erythropoiesis in red bone marrow.

4

New erythrocytes

enter bloodstream;

function about 120 days.

Figure 17.7, step 4

slide18

Hemoglobin

5

Aged and damaged red

blood cells are engulfed by

macrophages of liver,

spleen, and bone

marrow; the

hemoglobin is

broken down.

Heme

Globin

Bilirubin

Amino

acids

Iron stored

as ferritin,

hemosiderin

Bilirubin is picked up from blood

by liver, secreted into intestine in

bile, metabolized to stercobilin by

bacteria, and excreted in feces.

Circulation

Figure 17.7, step 5

slide19

Hemoglobin

5

Aged and damaged red

blood cells are engulfed by

macrophages of liver,

spleen, and bone

marrow; the

hemoglobin is

broken down.

Heme

Globin

Bilirubin

Amino

acids

Iron stored

as ferritin,

hemosiderin

Iron is bound to

transferrin and released

to blood from liver as

needed for erythropoiesis.

Bilirubin is picked up from blood

by liver, secreted into intestine in

bile, metabolized to stercobilin by

bacteria, and excreted in feces.

Circulation

Food nutrients,

including amino acids,

Fe, B12, and folic acid,

are absorbed from

intestine and enter

blood.

6

Raw materials are

made available in blood

for erythrocyte synthesis.

Figure 17.7, step 6

slide20

1

Low O2levels in blood stimulate

kidneys to produce erythropoietin.

2

Erythropoietin levels rise

in blood.

3

Erythropoietin and necessary

raw materials in blood promote

erythropoiesis in red bone marrow.

4

New erythrocytes

enter bloodstream;

function about 120 days.

5

Aged and damaged

red blood cells are

engulfed by macrophages

of liver, spleen, and bone

marrow; the hemoglobin

is broken down.

Hemoglobin

Heme

Globin

Bilirubin

Amino

acids

Iron stored

as ferritin,

hemosiderin

Iron is bound to

transferrin and released

to blood from liver as

needed for erythropoiesis.

Bilirubin is picked up from blood

by liver, secreted into intestine in

bile, metabolized to stercobilin by

bacteria, and excreted in feces.

Circulation

Food nutrients,

including amino acids,

Fe, B12, and folic acid,

are absorbed from

intestine and enter

blood.

6

Raw materials are

made available in blood

for erythrocyte synthesis.

Figure 17.7

slide21

(a) Normal erythrocyte has normal

hemoglobin amino acid sequence

in the beta chain.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

146

(b) Sickled erythrocyte results from

a single amino acid change in the

beta chain of hemoglobin.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

146

Figure 17.8

slide22

Differential

WBC count

(All total 4800–

10,800/l)

Formed

elements

Platelets

Granulocytes

Neutrophils (50–70%)

Leukocytes

Eosinophils (2–4%)

Basophils (0.5–1%)

Erythrocytes

Agranulocytes

Lymphocytes (25 – 45%)

Monocytes (3 – 8%)

Figure 17.9

slide25

Stem cells

Hemocytoblast

Lymphoid stem cell

Myeloid stem cell

Committed

cells

Myeloblast

Myeloblast

Myeloblast

Monoblast

Lymphoblast

Developmental

pathway

Promonocyte

Promyelocyte

Promyelocyte

Promyelocyte

Prolymphocyte

Eosinophilic

myelocyte

Basophilic

myelocyte

Neutrophilic

myelocyte

Basophilic

band cells

Eosinophilic

band cells

Neutrophilic

band cells

Monocytes

Neutrophils

Eosinophils

Basophils

Lymphocytes

(a)

(e)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Agranular leukocytes

Some

become

Granular leukocytes

Some become

Figure 17.11

slide26

Stem cell

Developmental pathway

Hemocyto-

blast

Promegakaryocyte

Megakaryoblast

Megakaryocyte

Platelets

Figure 17.12

slide27

1

Step Vascular spasm

•Smooth muscle contracts,

causing vasoconstriction.

2

Step Platelet plug

formation

•Injury to lining of vessel

exposes collagen fibers;

platelets adhere.

Collagen

fibers

•Platelets release chemicals

that make nearby platelets

sticky; platelet plug forms.

Platelets

3

Step Coagulation

•Fibrin forms a mesh that traps

red blood cells and platelets,

forming the clot.

Fibrin

Figure 17.13

slide28

Phase 1

Intrinsic pathway

Extrinsic pathway

Tissue cell trauma

exposes blood to

Vessel endothelium ruptures,

exposing underlying tissues

(e.g., collagen)

Platelets cling and their

surfaces provide sites for

mobilization of factors

Tissue factor (TF)

XII

Ca2+

XIIa

VII

XI

XIa

VIIa

Ca2+

IX

IXa

PF3

released by

aggregated

platelets

VIII

VIIIa

TF/VIIacomplex

IXa/VIIIacomplex

X

Xa

Ca2+

V

PF3

Va

Prothrombin

activator

Figure 17.14 (1 of 2)

slide29

Prothrombin

activator

Phase 2

Prothrombin (II)

Thrombin (IIa)

Phase 3

Fibrinogen (I)

(soluble)

Ca2+

Fibrin

(insoluble

polymer)

XIII

XIIIa

Cross-linked

fibrin mesh

Figure 17.14 (2 of 2)

slide33

Serum

Blood being tested

Anti-A

Anti-B

Type AB (contains

agglutinogens A and B;

agglutinates with both

sera)

RBCs

Type A (contains

agglutinogen A;

agglutinates with anti-A)

Type B (contains

agglutinogen B;

agglutinates with anti-B)

Type O(contains no

agglutinogens; does not

agglutinate with either

serum)

Figure 17.16