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Standard 1. Conflicts between regional and national interest in the development of democracy in the United States. Day 1 Wednesday. 1.1 14 slides. Varying regional c haracteristics Religious Social Political Economic. British Colonies. 3 Colonial Regions New England

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    1. Standard 1 Conflicts between regional and national interest in the development of democracy in the United States.

    2. Day 1 Wednesday

    3. 1.1 14 slides • Varying regional characteristics • Religious • Social • Political • Economic

    4. British Colonies • 3 Colonial Regions • New England • Massachusetts • Mid-Atlantic • Pennsylvania • Southern • Virginia and South Carolina • Varying motivations for settlement impacted each region • First successful English settlement was Jamestown, VA in 1607 • Settled for economic benefit • In search of gold

    5. Colonial Religion • Not every colony was founded for religious purposes • Most people came to improve economic and social standing • “Religious Freedom” did not have the same meaning as today • Pilgrims and Puritans came for freedom for themselves, not for all religions • Colonial religious intolerance was a prime factor in establishing the principle of separation of church and state after the American Revolution

    6. Colonial Religion New England • Very little religious tolerance • Puritans wanted to create a “city on the hill”, a community that England could look to as a model of godliness • The community couldn’t be defiled by people with other beliefs • Exiled dissenters • Roger Williams- Believed the government couldn’t force religion • Anne Hutchinson- Believed individuals could interpret the Bible

    7. Colonial Religion Mid-Atlantic • More religious diversity and tolerance • Pennsylvania was founded by Quakers (William Penn) • Everyone had a inner light which fostered tolerance • Act of Toleration- Lord Baltimore of Maryland promoted the Act in order to protect the rights of Catholics in the colony

    8. Colonial Religion Southern • Religion did not play a large role until the Great Awakening (1730s) • Revival meetings where 1,000s would attend • Placed an emphasis on higher education • The Church of England was the established church of the South

    9. Colonial Society New England & Mid-Atlantic • Society was centered around religious beliefs • Increased immigration from various countries caused class distinctions • The church fostered the development of towns and educational institutions

    10. Colonial Society Southern • A hierarchical social structure was created due to the South's reliance on indentured servants and later on slaves • Indentured Servant- agrees to serve 4-7 years to pay off a debt (usually the cost of transportation to the colonies) • Slave- originally came from Africa to Barbados then to the colonies • The plantation system impeded the development of towns and schools due to their large land holdings • All southern colonies became reliant on slaves

    11. Day 2 Thursday

    12. Colonial Politics • Colonial political development was impacted by the colonists experiences in England • Magna Carta(Medieval bill of rights) and Parliament (representatives) • Distance from England fostered the development of colonial governments • Civil War in England (1600s) and salutary (beneficial) neglect helped undermine the authority of the king • Increased the importance of colonial assemblies, which were able to control the royal governor appointed by the king • British subjects in the colonies were loyal to the Crown • Believed that only their colonial assemblies had the power to tax them

    13. Colonial Politics New England • Town Meetings • Representatives were sent from each town • Due to the emphasis on mercantilism and banking, political power was more diverse • Merchants and bankers had the most power

    14. Colonial Politics Southern • Virginia’s House of Burgesses • Only landowners could vote • Dependence on slavery and the plantation economy meant those with the most land had the most power • Coastal planters had more political power than ordinary farmers

    15. Colonial Economics • Economic development depended on geographic location, natural resources, and human capital (population & money) available

    16. Colonial Economics New England • Rocky soil, cold winters, and short growing seasons • Subsistence farming • Large forests • Shipbuilding • Vast river systems and harbors/seas • Fishing • Merchants • They were not dependent on slavery Mid-Atlantic • Fertile soil, moderate climate, and large families • Exported crops • They were not dependent on slavery

    17. Colonial Economics Southern • Vast land, rivers, fertile soil, and slave labor • Cash crops (grown on large scale for sale) • Tobacco • Rice • Indigo • Shipped to New England to be sent back to Europe • Cotton was not produced on a large scale until the late 1700s

    18. Colonial Economics • The three colonial regions developed an interdependent network of trade • Coastal trade • New England- Boston • Mid-Atlantic- New York • Southern- Charlestown • British Caribbean • Africa • Europe

    19. Day 3 Friday

    20. 1.2 9 slides • Representative Government and Political Rights in the Magna Carta and English Bill of Rights • Conflict between the Colonial Legislatures and British Parliament over taxation

    21. Colonial Government Influences • The Magna Cartarecognized the rights of Englishmen • Consulted on the levying of taxes • Rights were protected by a jury of peers • The rule of law is a principle that states every member of society must obey the law, even the king • Rules are clear, well-understood, and fairly enforced • The English Bill of Rights reinforced previous beliefs and introduced new freedoms • Consultation of levying of taxes • The power of the king is limited by the Parliament • Religious freedom

    22. Early Representative Governments • Virginia House of Burgesses • Maintained order in the colony and attracted new colonists • Because only property owners could vote, it created a social elitist society • The appointment of a royal governor in the 1620s further limited democracy in Virginia • Mayflower Compact • Exemplified the principle that a government derives its authority from the people • Puritan ideology supported democracy in Massachusetts Bay and spread with the Puritan faith • Puritan church was governed by male members and ruled through town meetings • Each town sent representatives to the General Court in Boston • Originally, only Puritan members attended but it was later expanded to include non-Puritan property owners

    23. Politics in England • English Civil War • The English government left the colonies alone to develop their own governments • Glorious Revolution • Due to 100 years of struggle between the King and Parliament • King James was overthrown by William and Mary • Agreed to abide by the English Bill of Rights • Recognized the supremacy of Parliament and its right to levy taxes

    24. Politics in England • John Locke • Natural Rights • Life, liberty, and property • Social Contract Theory • The government governs with the consent of the governed (power comes from the citizens) • Salutary Neglect • Colonists governed themselves • Little or no interference from England • Colonial assemblies had the power to tax the citizens • Ignored tariffs and smuggled goods into and from port • The ending of this policy is what fueled colonial revolt against the Crown

    25. The French and Indian War • 1754-1763, The English fought the French and many of the Native American tribes over control of North America • English won control of land east of the Mississippi River • The Proclamation of 1763 banned colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains • Caused the Crown to go into extreme debt

    26. Day 4 Monday

    27. Actions and Reactions • Sugar Act- 1764 • Established admiralty courts which violated the right to a trial by jury • Colonists reacted by protesting and increased smuggling • Stamp Act- 1765 • Direct tax on official documents • Colonists reacted by • Protest • “taxation without representation” • Creation of the Sons and Daughters of Liberty • Organized and supported protests • The Stamp Act Congress • Declaration of Rights and Grievances • Boycott

    28. Actions and Reactions • Stationing of British Troops- 1763 • Leftover from the French and Indian War • Troops stationed in Boston were taunted by an angry mob, and retaliated by firing shots into the crowed, killing five colonists (Boston Massacre, 1770) • Townshend Acts- 1767 • Taxed certain imports and stationed troops at major colonial ports • Colonists continued to boycott • Tea Act- 1773 • The Crown gave the East India Company a monopoly on the tea trade which caused prices to decrease in the hopes of lessening boycotts • Colonists reacted by dumping 18,000 lbs. of tea into the Boston Harbor (Boston Tea Party)

    29. Actions and Reactions • Coercive “Intolerable” Acts- 1774 • Due to the Boston Tea Party, King George III and Parliament wanted to punish the colonists • Shut down the Boston Harbor • Quartering Act- allowed British solders to stay in vacant private homes and buildings • Martial Law- Boston was forced to obey rules imposed by military forces • Colonists reacted by forming the First Continental Congress • 54 delegates drafted a declaration of colonial rights • Stated colonists could fight back if the British used force • Lexington and Concord- 1775 • “shot heard ‘round the world” • First shots of the Revolutionary War between British soldiers and Colonial Minutemen

    30. Colonists’ Goals • The colonists were not protesting against the taxes because they thought the taxes were too high nor were they attempting to form a new kind of government • The colonists were trying to hold onto the government that they had developed during the time of salutary neglect • The colonists did not want to have representation in Parliament because they would have been outvoted • The colonists wanted British recognition that only their colonial legislatures had the right to impose taxes on the colonial citizens

    31. Day 5 Tuesday

    32. 1.3 4 slides • Impact of the Declaration of Independence and the American Revolution

    33. The Declaration of Independence • The Declaration was written to further the cause of the colonists’ fight with Britain, which was already in its 2nd year • Addressed to those within the colonies who remained loyal to the king or were uncommitted to the cause of independence • Based on the ideas of John Locke • Principles of equality • Natural rights • Life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness

    34. The Declaration of Independence • Outlined the idea of limited government • The purpose of a government is to secure rights • It is the right of the people to alter or abolish the government if those rights aren’t protected • Blamed King George III, not Parliament, for violating the rights of the colonists • Lists actions that “He” did to the colonists • Try and break the bonds between the King and the loyalists • Unify the new nation against a common enemy • The charges listed are the events that led to the outbreak of war

    35. The Declaration of Independence • By declaring independence, America was able to enter into an alliance with France • The French king did not support the ideals of democracy • Started supporting America after its victory at Saratoga • Wanted to defeat its historical enemy • The alliance provided French naval support and supplies • Made the American victory at Yorktown possible

    36. Post War Impact • States began to put the principles of the Declaration into practice • Passed laws that gradually emancipated slaves (North) • Freedom of religion • Property-owning male suffrage • “all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights… [to] life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness” • Rally cry for those denied their rights

    37. Day 6 Wednesday

    38. 1.4 13 slides • Dissatisfactions with the Confederation government • Improvements in the Constitution of 1787 • Compromises of the Philadelphia Convention and the ratification of the Constitution

    39. The First form of Government • The Articles of Confederation was designed to protect the rights Americans had fought for during the Revolution

    40. The Confederation Government • Created by the Continental Congress, the Articles of Confederation established a weak central government • Created as a direct result of the experiences that led to the Revolution • Americans were fighting to preserve the rights of their colonial assemblies • They believed sovereignty rested in their state governments • The Confederation government was unable to meet the needs of the nation

    41. Confederation Government Successes • Large and small states disputed over land claims in the west • The Confederation absorbed all land claims and created the national domain • The Land Ordinances established a method for distribution of this land • The Northwest Ordinances set a precedent for the creation of new states and declared slavery illegal in the old Northwest Territory • First effort of the government to prohibit slavery

    42. Confederation Government Successes • The Confederation government under the Second Continental Congress proved effective during the Revolution • States had a common cause • The Confederation was satisfactory at the state level • States wrote new constitutions and passed laws that met their needs

    43. Confederation Government Successes • The Confederation effectively negotiated the Treaty of Paris 1783 (peace treaty after the Revolution) • When the fighting and common cause ended, Americans found that the Confederation government was too weak to meet the needs of the growing nation • 54 delegates met at the Philadelphia Convention to fix the Articles of Confederation • They ended up starting from scratch and created the Constitution of 1787 • Founders/Framers/Founding Fathers

    44. Confederation Government Problems 1. No Standing Army • Trade between Britain and America halted after the Revolution which meant many Americans were unable to pay their mortgages and state taxes • Led to Shays Rebellion in Massachusetts (1787)- Farmers marched to close the local courts and prevent foreclosure proceedings on farms • This frightened many of the elite and prompted their support for a stronger national government that could preserve peace Constitution: • The national government was given the power to levy taxes so they could afford an army and protect US interests

    45. Confederation Government Problems 2. No Federal Taxation • The Confederation did not have the power to tax the states • Unable to support a standing army • The government could request money from states but they were not obligated to pay anything Constitution: • The national government was given the power to levy taxes

    46. Day 7 Thursday

    47. Confederation Government Problems 3. No Single National Currency • The Confederation could not resolve conflicts between states over interstate trade, currency, or boundaries nor was there a judicial branch to resolve conflicts Constitution: • The new national government was given the exclusive power to control interstate trade and the currency • A judicial branch of government was established with the right to resolve disputes between states

    48. Confederation Government Problems 4. No Executive Leadership • States attempted to negotiate with foreign powers independently • The Confederation government had a lack of power and was unable to solve the nation’s problems • The states had more power and refused to acknowledge the federal government Constitution: • The federal government was given the exclusive right to make treaties with foreign powers • Gave the US diplomatic power • Set up a federal system which shared power between the states and the national government

    49. Confederation Government Problems 5. Required unanimous vote to amend • Complete inability to correct the Confederation government’s failures Constitution: • Made it easier to fix any unforeseen problems by including a provision for amendment by ¾ of the states

    50. Confederation Government Problems 6. Each state had equal vote in Congress • The Confederation Congress consisted of one house and each state delegation had one vote, no matter how big or small the population • Georgia (23,375) v. MA (235,308) Conflicts in Philadelphia: • Virginia Plan- large states wanted representation based on population • New Jersey Plan- small states wanted to have equal representation • Slaves- southern states wanted to count slaves in the population, northern states did not Constitution: • The Connecticut “Great” Compromise- A bicameral legislature was created that included the House of Representatives (population) and the Senate (equal) • 3/5ths Compromise- slaves were to count as 3/5 of a person for the purposes of representation and taxation