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Composite Risk Management Operational Level. Terminal Learning Objective. Task: Apply Composite Risk Management (CRM) to operations, training, and activities. Condition: In a classroom, given a practical exercise, and FM 5-19 and related publication

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terminal learning objective
Terminal Learning Objective

Task: Apply Composite Risk Management (CRM) to operations, training, and activities.

Condition: In a classroom, given a practical exercise, and FM 5-19 and related publication

Standards: IAW FM 5-19 and current CRM guidance from Chief of Staff, Army and Director, Army Safety/CG, US Army Combat Readiness Center



*Other: Medical, Suicide, Criminal & Undetermined.

Data Sources: USACRC RMIS, Preliminary Loss Reports, AFIP, and HRC



combat loss leading causes oif coalition forces jan 03 apr 06


Combat Loss: Leading Causes OIF Coalition Forces—Jan 03-Apr 06
the need for change
The Army’s purpose is enduring: fight and win the nation’s wars! Purpose is the same; methods change

Traditional means of Safety, Risk Management, and Warfighting are not compatible with today’s demands

The Need for Change
transformation of loss prevention
Transformation ofLoss Prevention
  • Legacy Army Safety was Accident-Centric and inadequate to solve the problem of Loss in the Army
  • Army fatalities result in loss to families, friends, and combat power
  • SECARMY and CSA “enlarged the problem” in order to solve it


As of 26 July 2006

integrating crm and command philosophy
Integrating CRM and Command Philosophy
  • Army Culture—no preventable loss is acceptable
  • Leaders are key to preventing loss—every commander, leader, and manager is responsible to integrate CRM into all missions and activities
  • CRM produces actionable knowledge, enabling smart decision making
  • Officers and NCOs are accountable for preserving our most precious resource: the Soldier
composite risk management crm
CRM expands traditional Risk Management to address ALL losses

Views a loss as a loss, no matter where or how it occurs

Assesses risk holistically

Manages Risk 24/7

Focuses on readiness and preserving combat power

Focuses on Soldiers

Composite Risk Management(CRM)
crm process


Controls & Make

Risk Decision




& Evaluate

CRM Process







crm purpose premise scope

Sound individual and leader risk decisions

Prevent unnecessary loss

The premise of CRM is that it does not matter where or how a loss occurs, the result is the same:

decreased combat power

degraded mission effectiveness

The scope of CRM encompasses the full spectrum of Army missions, functions, operations, and activities. CRM broadens the scope of Safety to prevent loss from combat, accident, and other causes

CRMPurpose, Premise, & Scope
crm guiding principles
Integrate CRM into all phases of missions and operations

Make risk decisions at the appropriate level

Accept no unnecessary risk

Apply the process cyclically and continuously

Do not be risk averse


Controls & Make

Risk Decision




& Evaluate

CRM Guiding Principles







leadership imperatives
Leadership Imperatives
  • G-1 Accountability
  • Army Readiness Assessment Program
  • Accountability for DAC Safety and Occupational Health
  • Accident Reporting
  • ASMIS-2 POV Risk Assessment Tool
  • Commander’s Safety Course
  • Additional Duty Safety Course
  • Army Traffic Safety Training Program
crm tools and resources

CRM Tools and Resources
  • Assessment
    • Army Readiness Assessment Program (ARAP)
    • ASMIS-1 (Mission Risk Assessment Tool)
    • ASMIS-2 (POV Risk Assessment Tool)
  • Reporting
  • Information
    • Risk Management Information System (RMIS)
    • Preliminary Loss Reports (PLR)
    • Commander’s Corner
  • Training – Combat Readiness University
crm and the operations process fm 3 0
CRM and The Operations Process (FM 3-0)

Identify Hazards-Assess Hazards-Develop Controls-Make Risk Decision- Implement Controls-Supervise & Evaluate

the operations process expanded fmi 5 0 1


Commander’s Intent

Planning guidance


Delegation of authority

Assignment of missions & tasks

Plans and Orders

Graphic control measures

Unit SOP

Information requirements

Laws and regulations


Military Decision Making Process

Troop Leading Procedures

The Operations Processexpanded (FMI 5-0.1)


  • Revise and refine plan
  • Rehearsals
  • Task Organize
  • Train
  • Troop movements
  • Pre-operations checks
  • Logistics
  • Integrating new Soldiers and units
  • Subordinate confirmation back-briefs


Rapid Decision Making and Synchronization Process

  • Focus assets on decisive operation
  • Adjust commander’s CCIR based on situation
  • Manage movement and positioning of supporting units
  • Adjust unit missions and tasks as necessary
  • Modify concept of operations as required
  • Position or relocate committed, supporting, and reserve units


  • Monitor
  • Evaluate using commander’s visualization and running estimates


C2,Intelligence, Maneuver, Sustainment, Fire Support, Protection


IPB, Targeting, Intelligence synchronization, Composite Risk Management


ISR, Security, Protection, Liaison/Coordination, Terrain Mgt, Information Ops, A2C2

  • Commanders
    • CRM is an integral part of planning
    • Identify hazards and assess the probability and severity of their occurrence
    • Determine acceptable risk and convey same in planning guidance
  • Staff
    • Consider Commander’s risk guidance in developing COA’s
    • Evaluate acceptability (risk vs. benefit) of each COA
mdmp tlp and crm
CRM is fully integrated and supportive of the MDMP and TLP

CRM provides a process by which hazards may be identified and considered in the decision making, problem solving, and troop leading

fm5 0 army problem solving screening criteria
FM5-0Army Problem Solving (Screening Criteria)

• Suitability—solves the problem and is legal and ethical

• Feasibility—fits within available resources

• Acceptability—worth the cost or risk

• Distinguishability—differs significantly from other solutions

• Completeness—contains the critical aspects of solving the problem from start to finish

Develop Controls to counter the risks associated with relevant hazards

Mission Rehearsals


Equipment Checks

SOP Reviews

Load Plan Verification

Reassess Risk—determine residual risk levels and overall mission risk

Make Risk Decisions

Acceptable level of risk

Decision made at the right level of command

…I am heartily tired of hearing about what Lee is going to do. Some of you always seem to think he is suddenly going to turn a double somersault and land in our rear and on both flanks at the same time. Go back to your command and try to think what we are going to do ourselves, instead of what Lee is going to do.

Lieutenant General U.S. Grant

Battle of the Wilderness, 1864

  • Taking action
  • Creating and exploiting opportunities
  • Continuously assessing the situation, integrating CRM and RDSP, and taking calculated risks
  • Applying sound tactics
  • Employing joint capabilities
informs bold decision making
Be bold, decisive, and violent. At the same time, understand when and where to take risks

Do not hesitate to execute your plan

Dispel uncertainty through action; create a response.

Seize the initiative, press the fight, overcome adversity

Informs Bold Decision-Making
desired end state
Informed decisions to control hazards or accept risks, made at the appropriate level of authority

Risk reduction commensurate with the commander’s intent

Risk issues elevated to the next higher command when resources to control high risk are not available

Desired End State
supervise and evaluate assess

Continuously assess

Direct adjustments

Evaluation Tools


Key Leaders at critical nodes

Measures of Effectiveness

Measures of Performance

Running estimates


Brief Backs



Supervise and Evaluate(Assess)
fm 7 0 training the force
Leaders are Responsible for Training

Actions and decisions are critical to prevent loss

Enforce safety and manage risks

Train as You Operate

Risk is inherent to Army training.

Safety and CRM must be integrated throughout training.

CRM is not risk aversion

Train to Standard

Train to Sustain

FM 7-0Training the Force
integrate crm as specified by doctrine
AR 385-10 Army Safety Program

FM 5-19 Composite Risk Management

FM 3-100.12 Risk Management (Multi-service)

FM 3-0 Operations

FM 5-0 Army Planning and Orders Production

FMI 5-0.1 The Operations Process

FM 7-0 Training the Force

Integrate CRM as specified by Doctrine
leadership imperatives1
Leadership Imperatives
  • G-1 Accountability
  • Army Readiness Assessment Program
  • Accountability for DAC Safety and Occupational Health
  • Accident Reporting
  • ASMIS-2 POV Risk Assessment Tool
  • Commander’s Safety Course
  • Additional Duty Safety Course
  • Army Traffic Safety Training Program
additional duty safety officer
Additional Duty Safety Officer

Per AR 385-10, Commanders must appoint additional duty safety personnel to perform required safety and accident prevention functions in units not staffed with full-time safety personnel. In troop units, this includes company level or equivalent organizational component. These unit safety personnel will—

  • Be appointed in writing on orders
  • Be a commissioned officer at battalion and higher unit levels
  • Be in the rank of staff sergeant or higher at company level
  • Have completed, or will complete, a local unit safety officer course
  • Have 1 year or more retainability in the unit upon duty appointment
  • Give their safety officer duties proper priority
  • Report directly to the commander on safety-related matters
report losses
Report Losses
  • Damage to Army property, including government-furnished equipment, property, or material
  • Injury (fatal or nonfatal) to on-duty or off-duty military personnel
  • Injury (fatal or nonfatal) to on-duty Army civilian personnel
  • Occupational injury or illness (fatal or nonfatal)
  • Any injury (fatal or nonfatal) or illness to non-Army personnel, or damage to non-Army property, as a result of Army operations
  • Class E Aviation incidents
  • FOD incidents (Class F)
reporting loss how are we doing
Reporting Loss: How are we doing?
  • 94% of Army accidents/ incidents were not reported to USACRC
  • AR 385-40 requires reporting, analysis, and investigation in order to
    • Identify cause factors and deficiencies
    • Develop countermeasures to prevent recurrent loss
    • Identify trends that may have potential impact beyond your formations (share lessons learned)

Accidents/Incidents, 2003-2006


Favorable Conditions Challenging Conditions

DOTMLPF matches Mission Tough Decisions

Risk Management

Where’s the Edge?

Where the 1st-line Leader draws it!

Lead on the Edge!

Conditions exceed capabilities

Beyond reasonable expectations

Consequence Management

oak tree counseling
Oak Tree Counseling
  • Personal Leader Engagement
    • Leader to Soldier
    • Supervisor to Employee
  • Directly address high-risk individual behavior traits on and off duty
  • Special focus areas
    • Alcohol or substance abuse
    • Suicide potential
    • Recently redeployed from combat
      • Overconfidence
      • New freedom
      • Feelings of invincibility
  • Leaders assist troops and employees in Owning the Edge

“With all the techniques available, preventing loss always boils down to personal leader engagement.”

General B. B. Bell