Anatomy and Medicine. Biology. Vesalius. William Harvey. European Middle Ages doctors relied on Greek, Galen Galen’s works inaccurate Flemish doctor Andreas Vesalius became known for work in anatomy. Used bodies of executed criminals for dissection
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Discoveries in Biology and Anatomy
Just as astronomers moved away from the works of ancient Greeks, other scientists used the scientific method to acquire new knowledge and make great discoveries in the fields of Biology and Anatomy.
Rejected the work of both Aristotle and Galen
Replace the traditional system with a new chemical philosophy based upon a new understanding of nature derived from fresh observation & experiment
Believed disease was caused by chemical imbalance in the organs which could be solved by chemical remedies
Although chemical remedies had been used, Paracelsus and his followers differed by giving careful attention to the proper dosages of their chemically prepared metals & materials
Paracelsus (11 November or 17 December 1493 in Einsiedeln, Switzerland - 24 September 1541) was an alchemist, physician, astrologer, and general occultist. Born Phillip von Hohenheim, he later took up the name Philippus Theophrastus Aureolus Bombastus von Hohenheim, and still later took the title Paracelsus, meaning "equal to or greater than Celsus", a Roman physician from the first century BC.
“Bier is a really divine medicine”. Paracelsus (1493 – 1541).
Paracelsus crater photographed by Apollo 15. An 83 km crater on the far side of the moon.
Barber surgeon (combination barber, dentist, doctor).
Got special permission from the Pope to dissect criminals.
First scientist to understand human anatomy.
Wrote the first accurate book on human anatomy – Fabrica.
Appointed as physician to the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.
This anonymous German print shows a thigh wound being cauterized. Above the action we can see the various medical instruments used for different types of wounds
Source: Hans von Gersdorff, Feldbuch der Wundartzey (sSrasbourg, 1540).
An anatomy lesson from the title page of Vesalius’s book.
“[The heart] is the household divinity which, discharging its function, nourishes, cherishes, quickens the whole body, and is indeed the foundation of life, the source of all action” - Harvey
From Observation to Experimentation
William Harvey’s experiments to demonstrate the circulation of blood (1628).
This illustrates an experiment to show that blood in the veins only flows toward the heart because of valves that stop blood from flowing back away from it.
Jenner worked in a rural community and most of his patients were farmers or worked on farms with cattle.
Jenner now had the opportunity to obtain the material try out his theories. He carefully extracted some liquid from her sores and then took some liquid from the sores of a patient with mild smallpox.
Jenner wrote a paper in 1798 explaining his experiments, and wanted to report his first case study in the “Transactions of the Royal Society of London” His study was rejected.
Men happy to have cleaner hospitals and good food.
Florence cared for the soldiers by walking round at night and checking they were alright
The Lady with
Bad conditions during war for injured (hurt) soldiers
Most soldiers sent to Turkey
So, soldiers called Florence...
Florence got supplies and a group of nurses to go and help
Queen Victoria wanted to meet her.
Florence set up the
Nightingale School of Nursing in London
Lots of people wanted her help and advice
She died in 1910
Florence is remembered today as the person responsible for improving conditions in hospitals and making nursing an acceptable job
‘The Lady with the Lamp’?
…because Florence cared for the soldiers by walking round at night and checking they were alright.
She gave them good food to eat.
Stereochemistist: molecular asymmetry
Fermentation and silk worker disease, Pasteurisation ,
Germ Theory of disease
Thus started microbilogy
Attenuated vaccines for cholera, anthrax, and rabies
On July 4, 1886, 9-year-old Joseph Meister was bitten repeatedly by a rabid dog. Pasteur treated him with his attenuated rabies vaccine two days later. Meister survived.
Joseph Meister later become a gatekeeper for the Pasteur Institute. In 1940, when he was ordered by the German occupiers to open Pasteur's crypt, Joseph Meister refused and committed suicide!
· Another way to look at Louis Pasteur:
THE DREAM AND LIE OF LOUIS PASTEUR
by R. B. Pearson
· First, championed changes in hospital practices to minimize the spread of disease by microbes.
· Second, discovered that weakened forms of a microbe could be used to immunize against more virulent forms of the microbe.
· Third, found that rabies was transmitted by agents so small they could not be seen under a microscope, thus revealing the world of viruses. As a result he developed techniques to vaccinate dogs against rabies, and to treat humans bitten by rabid dogs.
· And fourth, developed "pasteurization," a process by which harmful microbes in perishable food products are destroyed by heat, without destroying the food.
Treatment of Infections
Read Dialogue page 130
· German physician; also started to work on Anthrax in 1870's. Identified the spore stage.First time the causative agent of an infectious disease was identified.
· Koch's postulates: conditions that must be satisfied before accepting that particular bacteria cause particular diseases.
· Discovered the tubercle bacillus and tuberculin.
Detailed tuberculin skin test (DTH).
Awarded 1905 Nobel Prize.