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Political Situation in italy in the 1970s. Nadiah (405) & Rachel (403). Years of lead (Italy).

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years of lead italy
Years of lead (Italy)

The Years of Lead was a period of socio-political turmoil in Italy that lasted from the late 1960s into the early 1980s. This period was marked by a wave of terrorism, initially called “Opposing Extremisms.”

There was widespread social conflict and unprecedented acts of terrorism carried out by both right- and left-wing paramilitary groups.

The "years of lead" began with the shooting death of Antonio Annarumma in 1969 and the Piazza Fontana bombing


political parties all oppositions
Political Parties-All Oppositions

There were many Political Parties, all with different Ideologies that they wanted to implement in Italy.


general oppositions
General Oppositions

Christian Democracy (Italy)

(Main power)


Opposing parties who believe in:




anti immigrant

Nativism (politics)

Nativism typically means opposition to immigration or efforts to lower the political or legal status of specific ethnic or cultural groups because the groups are considered hostile or alien to the natural culture, and it is assumed that they cannot be assimilated.


neo fascist

Neo-fascism is a post–World War IIideology that includes significant elements of fascism.

The term neo-fascist may apply to groups that express a specific admiration for Benito Mussolini and Italian Fascism or any other fascist leader/state.

neo fascist1

Neo-fascism believes in:


anti-immigration policies



opposition to the parliamentary system

liberal democracy.

neo fascist italian fascism different parties
Neo-fascistItalian Fascism-Different Parties

National Fascist Party which under Benito Mussolini ruled the Kingdom of Italy from 1922 until 1943

Republican Fascist Party which ruled the Italian Social Republic from 1943 to 1945

Post-war Italian Social Movement, and subsequent Italian neo-fascist movements.

militant communist
Militant Communist

In Marxist theory, communism is a specific stage of historical development that inevitably emerges from the development of the productive forces that leads to a superabundance of material wealth, allowing for distribution based on need and social relations based on freely-associated individuals.

militant communist different parties
Militant CommunistDifferent Parties

Red Brigades:

The Red Brigades (BrigateRosse in Italian, often abbreviated as the BR) were a Marxist-Leninist terrorist group based in Italy and active, via a number of political assassinations, during the "Years of Lead".

Italian Communist Party:

Outlawed during the Fascist regime, the party played a major part in the Italian resistance movement. It changed its name in 1943 to PCI and became the strongest political party of the Italian left after World War II, attracting the support of about a third of the voters during the 1970s. At the time it was the biggest communist party in the West (1.8 million members and 34.4% of the vote in 1976).

main oppositions
Main Oppositions

Christian Democracy (Italy)

(Main power)


Neo-fascistItalian Social Movement (MSI)

Italian Communist Party (PCI)


Red Brigades

main conflicts
Main Conflicts

An attempt to integrate the neo-fascistItalian Social Movement (MSI) into the Tambroni government led to rioting and was short-lived.

The Christian Democrats (DC) were instrumental in the Socialist party gaining power in the 1960s and they created a coalition.

The assassination of the Christian Democratic (DC) leader Aldo Moro in 1978 ended the strategy of historic compromise between the DC and the Italian Communist Party (PCI).

The assassination was carried out by the Red Brigades, then led by Mario Moretti.

christian democracy italy ideology
Christian Democracy (Italy)Ideology

Believes in Catholic social teaching

Preferred competition to cooperation

Believes in social market economy

Rejected the Marxist's idea of class struggle.

Both right-wing and left-wing.

Against socialism and communism .

italian social movement ideology
Italian Social MovementIdeology

Advocacy of the third way in-between liberal capitalism and socialism;

Rejection of the party system;

Intransigent anti-communism;

Appeals for a strong executive branch;

Support for aggressive government intervention in the social sphere;

Opposition to the guiding role of superpowers in international politics.

italian communist party
Italian Communist Party


Communism is a socio-political movement that aims for a classless and statelesssocietystructured upon common ownership of the means of production, free access to articles of consumption, and the end of wage labour and private property in the means of production and real estate.


red brigades ideology
Red BrigadesIdeology

Marxist-Leninist terrorist group

Red Brigades sought to create a revolutionary state through armed struggle and to extract Italy from the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation.

the three most important features of italy s legal system
The Three Most Important Features of Italy’s Legal System
  • Constitutional system
  • Civil Code and contractual autonomy
  • Criminal system
  • http://www.ialsnet.org/meetings/enriching/scella.pdf
history of the italian state police
History of the Italian State Police

1. The nineteenth century: the birth, growth

2. The twentieth century

  • Science and politics
  • The Fascist Police Scheme

3. The Bocchini Era

4. The Senise Era and the Police War

5. Post Armistice

6. Post World War Two: Towards the new police

  • Angelo Vicari and the new Police

7. The Challenging Years

8. The Reforms of 1981

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Italian_State_Police
the 20th century the fascist police scheme
The 20th century:The Fascist Police Scheme
  • On December 31, 1922 Benito Mussolini, head of the infant government, led the two bodies (causing violent reactions of some negligence on the part of the troops involved), which were then absorbed into the Army of the Royal Carabinieri. In the same maneuver, was created the Volunteer Militia for National Security or MVSN.
the challenging years
The Challenging Years
  • The 70s saw the body, beyond the homologous areas of the Carabinieri, under operating pressures of commitment and seriousness comparable to a state of siege.
  • In this decade there were indeed dramatic increase in crime which reached dangerous numbers tragic simultaneously in many "specialists", including (but not limited to) terrorism, attempted coups, banditry (kidnapping), smuggling, trafficking in narcotics, robbery, extortion, Mafia robberies, racketeering and of 'wear, as well as political effervescence that for many years resulted in daily armed clashes between young people from opposing factions and between them and the police.
police force hierarchy
Police Force Hierarchy


& Officers

Highest power




police force ranks in italy
Police Force Ranks in Italy

1. Funzionari role: (Leaders/ officers)

  • Dirigente generale di livello B
  • Dirigente generale
  • Dirigente superiore
  • Primo dirigente
  • Vice questore aggiunto (Vice-questors)
  • Commissario capo (Comissioners)
  • Commissario
  • Vice commissario

2. Ispettori role: (Inspectors)

  • Ispettore superiore sostituto commissario
  • Ispettore superiore
  • Ispettore capoIspettore
  • Vice ispettore

3. Sovrintendenti role: (Superintendents)

  • Sovrintendente capo
  • Sovrintendente
  • Vice sovrintendente

4. Agenti e assistenti role: (Agents)

  • Assistente capo
  • AssistenteAgente scelto
  • Agente

*These ranks are written in French.

There is no direct English translation.



italian extradited over 1970s kidnap and murder of duke
Italian extradited over 1970s kidnap and murder of duke

"I have exhausted all the legal avenues," MrMariotti told the Guardian before he was escorted from his home by police to be flown back to Italy. "This is a fight that has been going on for 11 years. I think the British just want to wash their hands of me.

"I was a friend of the victim's son and I knew one of those people in the gang but I am totally innocent," he said. "When the gang was convicted none of them had ever heard of me. I am now 66 years old, I am going back to go to prison for many years. You don't need to use your imagination to know I will die there."

His employer, Nick Knight, said that he and his colleagues would continue to campaign for MrMariotti. "The evidence against him - it's rubbish," he said. "We are not going to let this lie." A website campaigning on his behalf is to be launched.

direct democracy in italy by roland erne with comments by bruno kaufmann
Direct Democracy in Italyby Roland Ernewith comments by Bruno Kaufmann

No. 352 of May 25, 1970, since the governing political parties never displayed any great interest in enabling the "abrogative referendum." This is hardly surprising, since this instrument might counterbalance and limit the power of the government.

In 1969/70 this situation accidentally changed, when the major governmental party, the Christian democrats, made a deal with its coalition partners whereby they would support the adoption of Law No. 352 in exchange for Christian democrat support for a law that allowed civic divorce.



Farce is a comedy employed in theatre that aims to entertain the audience through :

  • unlikely, extravagant (absurd) , and improbable (implausible, far-fetched) situations,
  • stereotyped characters,
  • disguise and mistaken identity,
  • verbal humour of varying degrees of sophistication, which may include sexual innuendo & word play (e.g. puns)
  • fast-paced plot whose speed usually increases

Farce is characterized by:

  • Physical humour (slapstick)
  • Use of deliberate absurdity/nonsense
  • Broadly stylized performances