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Historia de Estados Unidos. Mtra. Marcela Álvarez Pérez Política de Estados Unidos 1. Fines del SXV: cambios en Europa generan incentivos para la exploración Dos cambios en particular: Crecimiento poblacional significativo Crecimiento del comercio e incremento general de la prosperidad:

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Mtra marcela lvarez p rez pol tica de estados unidos 1

Historia de Estados Unidos

Mtra. Marcela Álvarez Pérez

Política de Estados Unidos 1

  • Fines del SXV: cambios en Europa generan incentivos para la exploración

    • Dos cambios en particular:

      • Crecimiento poblacional significativo

      • Crecimiento del comercio e incremento general de la prosperidad:

        • Nueva clase mercante, demanda de bienes del exteriorAvances en navegación  interés en expandir el comercio creció con rapidez

  • España, Francia, Gran Bretaña, Holanda exploración

  • Principal diferencia: sociedades inglesas, francesas y holandesas  agricultura y asentamientos permanentes vida familiar

  • Reproducción rápida tras primeras dificultades  superioridad numérica sobre nativos


  • Primer contacto: John Cabot (GiovaniCaboto), 1497, buscando pasaje por el noroeste (Enrique VII)

  • Interés en colonización:

    • Respuesta a los problemas socioeconómicos de la Inglaterra del S. XVI

      • Guerras frecuentes y costosas

      • Lucha religiosa dentro del país

      • Fuerte transformación económica del campo: la demanda de lana estaba transformando los campos en pasturas

        • reducción de tierra disponible para agricultura: cantidad de alimentos en declive frente a una población en crecimiento.

        • El nuevo mundo era atractivo porque ofrecía tierra

Relaci n tierra poder
Relación Tierra-Poder exploración

  • América

  • Gran Bretaña (Europa)

Charter to sir walter raleigh march 25 1584
Charter to Sir Walter Raleigh exploración March 25 1584

  • Sir Walter Raleigh explora la costa y llama el territorio “Virginia”

  • ELIZABETH, by the Grace of God of England, Fraunce and Ireland Queene, defender of the faith, &c. To all people to whome these presents shall come, greeting. Knoweyee that of our especial grace, certaine science, and meere motion. . . . we give and graunt to our trustie and welbeloved servant Walter Ralegh, Esquire, and to his heiresassignes for ever, free libertie and licence from time to time, and at all times for ever hereafter, to discover, search, finde out, and view such remote, heathen and barbarous lands, countries, and territories, not actually possessed of any Christian Prince, nor inhabited by Christian People, as to him. . . . shall seeme good, and the same to have, holdeoccupie and enjoy to him. . . . for ever, with all prerogatives, . . . thereto or thereabouts both by sea and land, whatsoever we by our letters patent may graunt. . . . and the said Walter Ralegh, his heires and assignes. . . . shall goe or travaile thither to inhabite or remaine, there to build and fortifie, at the discretion of the said Walter Ralegh, . . .

And we do likewise . . . exploración give and graunt full authoritie, libertie and power to the said Walter Ralegh. . . . that he . . . shall . . . have, take, and leade in the saide voyage, and travaile thitherward, or to inhabit there with him, or them, and every or any of them, such and so many of our subjects as shall willingly accompanie him or them. . . .

And further that the said Walter Ralegh, . . . shall have . . . all the soileof all such lands, territories, and Countreis, so to bee discovered and possessed as aforesaide, and of all such Cities, castles, townes, villages, and places in the same, with the right, royalties, franchises, and jurisdictions, as well marine as other within the saidelandes, or Countreis, or the seas thereunto adjoining, to be had, or used, with full power to dispose thereof, and of every part in fee-simple or otherwise, according to the order of the lawes of England. . . . : reserving always to us our heires, and successors, for all services, duties, and demaundes, the fift part of all the oare of golde and silver, that from time to time, and at all times shal be there gotten and obtained: . . .

And moreover, we doe . . . give and exploración grauntlicence to the said Walter Ralegh, . . . that he. . . . shall and may . . . for his and their defence, encounter and expulse, repell and resist . . . all . . . as without the especiall liking and licence of the said Walter Ralegh. . . . shall attempt to inhabite within the said Countreis. . . . or within the space of two hundreth leagues neere to the place or places within such Countreis.... where the saideWalter Ralegh, . . . shall within sixe yeeres . . . make their dwellings. . . . And for uniting in more perfect league and amitie, of such Countreis, landes, and territories so to bee possessed and inhabited as aforesaidewith our Realmes of Englande, and Ireland, and the better incouragement of men to these enterprises: we do . . . declare that all such Countreis, so hereafter to be possessed and inhabited as is aforesaide, from thencefoorth shall bee of the allegiance of us, our heires and successours. And wee doe graunt to the saideWalter Ralegh, . . . and to all and every of them, . . . that they . . . being either borne within our saideRealmes of Englande. . . . shall and may have all the priviledges of free Denizens, and persons native of England. . . .

And . . . we . . . do give and exploración graunt to the said Walter Ralegh, . . . that hee . . . shall, within the said mentioned remote landes . . . have full and meere power and authoritie to correct, punish, pardon, governe, and rule by their and every or any of their good discretions and pollicies, as well in causes capital, or criminall, as civil. . . . all such our subjects as shall from time to time adventure themselves in the said journies or voyages, or that shall at any time hereafter inhabite any such landes, countreis, or territories as aforesaide. . . . according to such statutes, lawes and ordinances, as shall bee by him the saideWalter Ralegh . . . devised, or established, for the better government of the said people as aforesaid. So always as the said statutes, lawes, and ordinances may be as neere as conveniently may be, agreeable to the forme of the lawes, statutes, governement, or pollicie of England, . . .

Provided exploración alwayes, and our will and pleasure is, and wee do hereby declare to all Christian kings, princes and states, that if the saideWalter Ralegh, his heires or assignes, or any of them, or any other by their licence or appointment, shall at any time or times hereafter, robbe or spoileby sea or by lande, or do any acte of unjust or unlawful hostilitie, to any of the subjects of us, our heires or successors, or to any of the subjects of any the kings, princes, rulers, governors, or estates, being then in perfect league and amitie with us, our heires and successors, and that upon such injury, or upon just complaint of any such prince, ruler, governoir, or estate, or their subjects, wee, our heires and successours, shall make open proclamation within any the portes of our Realme of England, that the saideWalter Ralegh, his heires and assignes, and adherents, or any to whome these our letters patents may extende, shall within the termes to be limitted, by such proclamation, make full restitution, and satisfaction of all such injuries done, so as both we and the said princes, or other so complayning, may holde us and themselves fully contented.

And that if the exploración saideWalter Ralegh, his heires and assignes, shall -not make or cause to be made satisfaction accordingly, within such time so to be limitted, that then it shall be lawfullto us our heires and successors, to put the saideWalter Ralegh, his heires and assignes and adherents, and all the inhabitants of the said places to be discovered (as is aforesaide) or any of them out of our allegiance and protection, and that from and after such time of putting out of protection the said Walter Ralegh, his heires, assignes and adherents, and others so to be put out, and the said places within their habitation, possession and rule, shal be out of our allegeance and protection, and free for all princes and others, to pursue with hostilitie, as being not our subjects, nor by us any way to be avouched, maintained or defended, nor to be holden as any of ours, nor to our protection or dominion, or allegiance any way belonging, for that expresse mention of the cleeryeerely value of the certaintie of the premisses, or any part thereof, or of any other gift, or grant by us, or any our progenitors, or predecessors to the said Walter Ralegh, before this time made in these presents be not expressed, or any other grant, ordinance, provision, proclamation, or restraint to the contrarye thereof, before this time given, ordained, or provided, or any other thing, cause, or matter wbatsoever, in any wise notwithstanding. In witness whereof, we have caused these our letters to be made patents. Witnesse our selves, at Westminster, the 25. day of March, in the sixe and twentieth yeere of our Raigne.

  • Colonización: exploración Compañías Mercantiles

    • Compañía de Virginia: Derechos de ingleses, participación en auto-gobierno.

      • Julio 30, 1619: delegados de las comunidades se reúnen en la Casa de Burgueses (House of Burguesses)primera junta de una legislatura electa

  • Motivos religiosos para la migración: exploración

    • Reforma de Lutero (1517): espíritu de reforma se esparció por Europa.

    • Calvino: PREDESTINACION: Dios elegía a algunos para ser salvados y otros no.

      • Lo que hicieras en la vida revelaba tu condición: santidad, diligencia, éxito signos de la gracia del señor. Incentivo para llevar vidas productivas y virtuosas.

    • Reforma Inglesa 1529-Enrique VIII

      • María, restaura relaciones con Roma y persigue a los no-católicos

      • 1558-Elizabeth I, vuelve a la reforma

      • Para muchos no suficientemente reformada: pedían reformas que purificaran la iglesia

      • Puritanos en Inglaterra

  • muerte de Elizabeth exploración Jacobo I 1603

    • Convencido del derecho divino de gobernar

    • Contra los Puritanos (hombres de negocio en ascenso)favoritismo para los católicos en cuanto a impuestos, etc.

  • Principios del S.XVII comienzan a buscar refugio fuera del reino.

  • Peregrinos/Puritanos exploración

  • Fuera de la autoridad de la compañía establecen el convenio del Mayflowerpara establecer gobierno.

  • Desembarcan el 21 de diciembre de 1620.

Mayflower compact
Mayflower Compact exploración

In the name of God, Amen. We, whose names are underwritten, the loyal subjects of our dread Sovereign Lord King James, by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, King, defender of the Faith, etc.

Having undertaken, for the Glory of God, and advancements of the Christian faith and honor of our King and Country, a voyage to plant the first colony in the Northern parts of Virginia, do by these presents, solemnly and mutually, in the presence of God, and one another, covenant and combine ourselves together into a civil body politic; for our better ordering, and preservation and furtherance of the ends aforesaid; and by virtue hereof to enact, constitute, and frame, such just and equal laws, ordinances, acts, constitutions, and offices, from time to time, as shall be thought most meet and convenient for the general good of the colony; unto which we promise all due submission and obedience.

In witness whereof we have hereunto subscribed our names at Cape Cod the 11th of November, in the year of the reign of our Sovereign Lord King James, of England, France, and Ireland, the eighteenth, and of Scotland the fifty-fourth, 1620

  • Gilbert Winslow exploración

  • Edmund Margeson

  • Peter Browne

  • Richard Britteridge

  • George Soule

  • Richard Clarke

  • Richard Gardiner

  • John Allerton

  • Thomas English

  • Edward Doty

  • Edward Lester

  • John Tilley

  • Francis Cooke

  • Thomas Rogers

  • Thomas Tinker

  • John Rigsdale

  • Edward Fuller

  • John Turner

  • Francis Eaton

  • James Chilton

  • John Crackstone

  • John Billington

  • Moses Fletcher      

  • John Goodman

  • Degory Priest

  • Thomas Williams

  • Mr. John Carver

  • William Bradford

  • Mr. Edward Winslow

  • Mr. William Brewster

  • Mr. Isaac Allerton

  • Capt. Myles Standish

  • John Alden

  • Mr. Samuel Fuller

  • Mr. Christopher Martin

  • Mr. William Mullins

  • Mr. William White

  • Mr. Richard Warren

  • John Howland

  • Mr. Stephen Hopkins

  • Edward Tilley

  • Massachusetts. 1630 zarpan 17 barcos y mil personas, grupos familiares, más grande migración en masa de su tipo en el S.XVII.

    • Aparición de varias colonias. Puerto de Boston capital y luego otros pueblos: Charlestown, newtown, etc.

  • Gente seria y piadosa, vida útil, de frugalidad y trabajo duro.

  • G0bernador John Winthrop: COMUNIDAD MODELO, CIUDAD SOBRE LA COLINA digna de ser imitada: ministros y representantes hombro a hombro especie de teocracia, intolerancia religiosa

John winthrop s city upon a hill 1630
John Winthrop's  familiares, más grande migración en masa de su tipo en el S.XVII.City upon a Hill, 1630

  • Now the onely way to avoyde this shipwracke and to provide for our posterity is to followe the Counsell of Micah, to doe Justly, to love mercy, to walke humbly with our God, for this end, wee must be knitt together in this worke as one man, wee must entertaine each other in brotherly Affeccion, wee must be willing to abridge our selves of our superfluities, for the supply of others necessities, wee must uphold a familiar Commerce together in all meekenes, gentlenes, patience and liberallity, wee must delight in eache other, make others Condicions our ownerejoyce together, mourne together, labour, and suffer together, allwayeshaveing before our eyes our Commission and Community in the worke, our Community as members of the same body, soe shall wee keepe the unitie of the spirit in the bond of peace, the Lord will be our God and delight to dwell among us, as his owne people and will commaund a blessing upon us in all our ways…

familiares, más grande migración en masa de su tipo en el S.XVII.soethat wee shall see much more of his wisdome power goodnes and truthe then formerly wee have beene acquainted with, wee shall findethat the God of Israellis among us, when tenn of us shall be able to resist a thousand of our enemies, when hee shall make us a prayse and glory, that men shall say of succeeding plantacions: the lord make it like that of New England: for wee must Consider that wee shall be as a Citty upon a Hill, the eies of all people are uppon us; soe that if wee shall deale falsely with our god in this worke wee have undertaken and soe cause him to withdrawe his present help from us, wee shall be made a story and a byword through the world, wee shall open the mouthes of enemies to speakeevill of the wayes of god and all professours for Gods sake; wee shall shame the faces of many of gods worthy servants, and cause theire prayers to be turned into Cursses upon us till wee be consumed out of the good land whether wee are going:

…And familiares, más grande migración en masa de su tipo en el shuttupp this discourse with that exhortacion of Moses that faithfull servant of the Lord in his last farewell to Israell Deut. 30. Beloved there is now sett before us life, and good, deathe and evill in that wee are Commaunded this day to love the Lord our God, and to love one another to walke in his wayes and to keepe his Commaundements and his Ordinance, and his lawes, and the Articles of our Covenant with him that wee may live and be multiplyed, and that the Lord our God may blesse us in the land whether wee goe to possesse it: But if our heartes shall turne away soe that wee will not obey, but shall be seduced and worshipp other Gods our pleasures, and proffitts, and serve them, it is propounded unto us this day, wee shall surely perishe out of the good Land whether wee passe over this vast Sea to possesse it;

Therefore familiares, más grande migración en masa de su tipo en el S.XVII.lett us choose life,

that wee, and our Seede,

may live; by obeyeing his

voyce, and cleaveing to him,

for hee is our life, and

our prosperity.