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Integrated assessment and management of pig health risks – lesson’s learnt Kate Blaszak, Coordinator and Veterinarian SPSP. .

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  1. Integrated assessment and management of pig health risks – lesson’s learntKate Blaszak, Coordinator and Veterinarian SPSP.

  2. AcknowledgementPresentation on behalf on two projects funded by ACIAR and ILRI for Lao PDR.Acknowledgement and thanks to LP and SKT provincial staff, CIAT, Laos partners from NAHC, DHP, NCLE, NAFRI and Australian partners from AAHL, MORU. Add ACIAR logo

  3. Outline • Integrated Project - One health, One system • Integrated Health Risk Assessment - Concept Planning, Methodology and Training • Integrated Heath Risk Management • Results, Interpretation and Interventions • Discussion and Lessons • Other possible methods

  4. One health, One system Original SPSP project integrated with EcoHealth – EcoZEID SPSP Aim: to reduce risks and increase productivity associated with smallholder pig systems in Laos • Many of the pig related zoonoses are clinically silent in pigs – they are not a direct risk to pig health but potentially to human health (JEV, HEV, T/C, Trichinella+) • Project is Onehealth, also One system – interested in pig health and production risks in villages & market chains. • Key clinical pig diseases of interest and impact suspected CSF, PRRS, FMD, Erysipelas also Salmonella, endemic parasitism, possible multi-factorial lung, piglet diseases in addition to the infection status related to the above zoonoses.

  5. Integrated Assessment of Pig Health Risks • Planning concepts – One health, risk based questioning • Methodology and Training • integrated training of human and animal health staff • integrated epidemiology – PPP approach from 2005 human census so human centric sampling for human and pig disease exposure • integrated system for village data collection • participatory village mapping for health risks (SPSP) • integrated laboratory training and testing for exposure • integrated analysis of crude seroprevalence and health risks * health risk assessment for actors further along the market chain yet to be done

  6. 8 SPSP Villages - Also PPP by village HH number PPP: Villages are randomly sampled but weighted by human population 2 ECOZEID Provinces – each 30 Villages x 15 Humans 15 Pigs

  7. Survet for integrated questionnaire development, data entry and web storage – www.quest.survet.net concept designed by Peter Durr of

  8. Staff training and village data collection Insert some pictures

  9. Integrated assessment for results of over 700 pig and 1000 human samples • integrated and contextual results EcoZEID and SPSP • crude seroprevalence (village and provincial) • looking for associated zoonotic, pig health risks • village mapping (perceived and possible geospatial disease risks) • challenges-interpretation and validation of some tests in field situation (eg. HEV pigs), retest to confirm some hotspots (T/C) and specificity (JEV)

  10. Human and Pig Hepatitis E Sero-prevalence Results Human Prev 61.4% Pig Prev 64.0%

  11. Human and Pig Trichinella Sero-prevalence Results Human Prev 47.3% Pig Prev 13.2%

  12. Some zoonotic risk results

  13. Pig CSF Sero-prevalence Results Pig CSF Prev 10.3%

  14. Pig PRRS Sero-prevalence Results Pig PRRS Prev 8.2%

  15. Pig Erysipelas Sero-prevalence Results Pig Erysipelas Prev 47.5%

  16. Some pig health and production risk results….also FMD, others

  17. (SPSP) B.Houayloun – suspected risks ? Pig pens mostly concentrated in village on periphery or near stream facilitates pig disease transfer but may reduce human infections. Few pig pens near village entrance Village entrance – few pens may reduce biosecurity risk? pig pens near river and vegie gardens so may increase HEV risk

  18. Integrated management of pig health and zoonotic risks • Interventions by *DAFOs and DHOs, supported by PAFOs and PHOs, VVWs, VHWs and NAHC, DHP ……PMC etc • One Health opportunities – disease investigation, vaccine storage and delivery, education, monitoring • Zoonotic risk reduction interventions – Sanitation, consumption and vector prevention – education and behaviour change, reducing humane and pig reservoirs of disease where relevant (human taenia carriers, piga with trichinella infection, pen location and HEV?) • Integrated pig nutrition, health, production solutions for a one system approach • Pig health and production – interventions and monitoring – initial focus on grower pigs* • CSF vaccination intervention • PV seroconversion, pig mortality, dynamics and growth monitoring • Disease outbreak investigation, pathology and response, prevention • Housing and management training, design, implementation • Forage and nutrition interventions • Economic GMA

  19. Reduce pig disease risk, transfer and impact

  20. Integrated pig management 5 ‘principles of successful livestock management’ Ref: Varney – ACIAR 2008, 5 freedoms – FAWC, 1996. Fresh Water ad lib and suitable diet – for health, production and growth Management and handling in a stress free manner Suitable shelter, space, bedding – comfortable resting area. Freedom from pain, injury and disease - prevention, rapid diagnosis and treatment Appropriate breeding strategies (and ability to conduct normal behaviours) we need…………

  21. The challenge – working with farmers to design housing as needed with available resources in villages* and project

  22. Lessons and other options for integrated assessment • One health, One systems – training, time, silver bullets? • Build in time, expertise for complex statistical analysis • Review existing records, systems (NCLE) more, gap analysis and capacity building for sustainable disease surveillance • Syndromic assessment and monitoring approaches • Within recall time frames maybe quite reliable • Action research • Qualitative and Quantitative risk assessment by matrix – exposure risks (likelihood) and disease consequence (impact) • Options yet to think of………

  23. Lessons and other options – integrated management of health risks • Interventions by risk score and achievability (matrix?) • Consult well with interested farmers, convey the benefits, incentives & listen! • Integrate management of pig health risks along the market chain* • How to best work with, incorporate the sanaam, a traditional ‘biosecure’ measure? • Plan and communicate well internally, consult for good educational approaches • Consulting, integrating with other projects or NGOs for effective solutions • Greater consultation and integration with village policy and management • Integrate with existing systems, HH/ PH vaccination and education interventions? • Endorsement by local Governors • Build links for scaling out – Learning Alliance • Only the start……..initial zoonotic interventions pending • Much more to learn!

  24. Thanks to the teams and partners who contribute to these projects. Any questions?

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