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Review Sessions for Exam III Wednesday  April 11, 3:30 P.M.  HUMB 360 Thursday  April 12, 7:30 P.M. PowerPoint Presentation
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Review Sessions for Exam III Wednesday  April 11, 3:30 P.M.  HUMB 360 Thursday  April 12, 7:30 P.M.

Review Sessions for Exam III Wednesday  April 11, 3:30 P.M.  HUMB 360 Thursday  April 12, 7:30 P.M.

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Review Sessions for Exam III Wednesday  April 11, 3:30 P.M.  HUMB 360 Thursday  April 12, 7:30 P.M.

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  1. Review Sessions for Exam III Wednesday  April 11, 3:30 P.M.  HUMB 360 Thursday  April 12, 7:30 P.M.

  2. Totalitarianism and the Decline of the West The era of individualism, liberalism and democracy, of humanitarianism and freedom, is nearing its end. The masses will accept with resignation the victory of the Caesars, the strong men, and will obey them. -Oswald Spengler, The Decline of the West

  3. I. The Tragedy of Versailles

  4. A. The Progressives’ War 1. 14 PointsInternationalism Woodrow Wilson

  5. B. 1918 1. Final gambleLudendorff Offensive (March) Wilhelm II abdicates(November)“November Criminals”

  6. D. Opportunity missed 1. Diktat article 231- responsibility / reparations 2. League of Nations 3. Reorganized empires- mandates

  7. Legacy of Versailles 1. Allies not interested in progressive war - disillusionment w/ “democracy” • US rejects League- return to near-isolationism • Europe festers

  8. 3. League of Nations too weak to: - establish new balance of power - rebuild Europe - contend with Bolshevism in the East

  9. Dictatorship and Ideology “I was ripe to be converted”- Arthur Koestler 1949

  10. I. Revolution in Russia 1917-1920 Fall of the Romanov Dynasty Nicholas II

  11. A. Reform & Repression • 1904-05 Russo-Japanese War- 1905-07 “Revolution” • The “Mad Monk” Rasputin

  12. B. Feb/March Revolution 1. Provisional Government - Alexander Kerensky

  13. 2. Soviets (workers and soldiers) - consensus lacking; locally independent

  14. 3. Kerensky Offensive 1917

  15. C. Red October 1. Social Democrats (Marxists) - historical dialectic

  16. 2. Mensheviks- parliamentary means Bolsheviks- violent revolution -- bourgeois self-absorption -- discipline

  17. 3. V. I. Ulyanov (Lenin) - professional revolutionaries - role of soviets 4. April Theses - peace, land and bread

  18. 5. Storming the Winter Palace Leon Trotsky

  19. D. Bolsheviks establish power 1. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk 1918

  20. 2. The Russian Civil War, 1917-1920

  21. 3. Elimination of the Czar, 1918

  22. 4. Politburo - socialist dictatorship 5. New Economic Policy, 1921-28

  23. Fanaticism and Salvation Thomas Mann1875-1955 Humanity seems to have run like boys let out of schoolaway from the humanitarian, idealistic nineteenth century,from whose morality – if we can speak at all of morality inthis connection – represents a wide and wild reaction. - “An Appeal to Reason” 1931

  24. A. Stalinization 1. Totalitarianism- mind and body - v. Trotsky

  25. 2. Forced industrialization- 5-Year Plans- Collectivization Liquidation of the kulaks

  26. 3. Comintern 4. Great Purges, 1934-38 “Gulag Archipelago” Solzhenitsyn

  27. 5. Stalin’s foreign policy - Treaty of Rapallo, 1924 - Mutual Non-Aggression Pact, 1939

  28. B. Betrayal of Socialism • Stalin’s “Animal Farm”- ideology v. humanity- NKVD “Black Ravens”- Socialist dictatorship 2. Left in crisis George Orwell

  29. II. Italian Fascism Nationalism Anti-liberal values Politics of the Irrational

  30. A. Legacy of Unification • Weak liberal/democratic tradition • Failures of WWI

  31. B. Mussolini’s Italy • Benito Mussolini 1922-43 • Fascio- “witch’s brew” of ideologies- politics of the irrational

  32. 3. Attack on “bourgeois” values 4. Squadristi “black shirts”

  33. Alliance with industrialists- corporative system 6. Cult of Personality Il Duce- fasces

  34. 7. Lateran Treaty, 1929 - Linkage of fascism to anti-modernism

  35. C. The New Roman Empire 1. Militarism- Ethiopia ’35- Albania ’39 2. Pact of Steel, 1939

  36. III. The Spanish Civil War Dress rehearsal for WWII, 1936-39 Guernica - Pablo Picasso

  37. A. The Spanish Republic 1. 1931, Popular Front 2. Republican v. Nationalist - Francisco Franco

  38. B. International Event 1. Condor Legion 2. International Brigade - Abraham Lincoln Brigade Hemingway, For Whom the Bell Tolls

  39. IV. Paralyzed democracy Depression Division Isolation Salvador Dali

  40. A. France 1. Political polarization 2. Depression cancels out reform Leon Blum

  41. B. Great Britain • Maintaining Empire 2. Fascist fan club- British Union of Fascists- Edward VIII

  42. C. The United States and the New Deal 1. Leftward expansion 2. Groundwork for prosperityFDR

  43. Totalitarian Europe Rhineland ’36 Anschluss ’37 Munich Agreement ‘38 Poland, ‘39