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Mendel’s Legacy. Genetics. Gregor Mendel. Father of genetics Researched heredity looking at traits or genetically determined variant of a characteristic. Pea plant. Mendel’s Methods. Pollination

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Presentation Transcript
gregor mendel
Gregor Mendel
  • Father of genetics
  • Researched heredity looking at traits or genetically determined variant of a characteristic.
  • Pea plant
mendel s methods
Mendel’s Methods
  • Pollination
    • Self-pollination occurs when pollen is transferred from the anthers of a flower to the stigma of either that flower or another flower on the same plant.
    • Cross-pollination occurs between flowers of two plants

Monohybrid cross

  • Cross for only one trait
  • Legend:
    • Trait (pea plant height)
    • P1 – Parents
    • F1 – First filial (son or daughter) generation
    • F2 – Second filial generation
mendel s conclusions
Mendel’s Conclusions
  • Factors controlled the characteristics/ traits observed
    • i.e. Plant height, flower color, etc.
  • A pair of factors must control each trait
    • Dominant
      • The factor that is observed
    • Recessive
      • The factor that is masked by the dominant factor
law of segregation and law of independent assortment
Law of Segregation and Law of Independent Assortment
  • Law of Segregation states that a pair of factors is segregated, or separated, during the formation of gametes
  • Law of Independent Assortment states that factors separate independently of one another during the formation of gametes.
molecular genetics
Molecular Genetics
  • Each organism has two factors for each trait called genes
    • Two alleles for shortness, two alleles for tallness
  • Alleles are alternative forms for genes
  • Alleles are found on different copies of a chromosome (one from mom, one from dad)
genotype and phenotype
Genotype and Phenotype
  • Genotype
    • Gene combination of an organism
    • Tt, RR
  • Phenotype
    • The way an organism looks
    • Tt – tall plant
    • RR – round pea
    • Two alleles for the trait are the same
    • RR, rr
  • Heterozygous
    • Two alleles for the trait are different
    • Rr

Probability = number of times an event is expected to happen/number of times an event could happen

mendel s experiment
Mendel’s Experiment

F2 generation:

Dominant trait (yellow seeds) = 6,022

Recessive traits (green seeds)= 2,001

Total # plants produced= 8,023



There is a 75% probability the dominant trait of yellow seeds will occur

monohybrid cross
Monohybrid Cross
  • Only one characteristic is tracked
    • Genotypic ratio
    • Phenotypic ratio
  • Testcross- identify an individual of unknown genotype
punnett square
Punnett Square
  • Used to predict the probable distribution of inherited traits in the offspring
  • Complete dominance- one allele is completely dominant over another allele
  • Incomplete dominance- a phenotype in between that of the dominant and recessive traits
  • Codominance-both alleles for a gene are expressed in a heterozygous offspring
dihybrid cross
Dihybrid Cross
  • Track two traits