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Enterprise and Entrepreneurship

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  1. Enterprise and Entrepreneurship

  2. Meeting Notes from 28/04/2006 • Provide 2 examples of structure of workshops • One to add on to employability • One stand alone …then we thought… • One to engage with agenda – hearts and minds • One to contain interactive activities with discussions –consider inviting students? • Provide examples and case studies containing theoretical and interactive material

  3. Ice Breaker.. • Name • What you *do* • One thing that no one else here knows about you

  4. Objectives of the workshop: • NOT to *teach you entrepreneurship*! • To provide resources for staff • To provide resources for staff to use with students • To provide ideas about how to engage in the enterprise/entrepreneurship agenda within the HEI and with students

  5. Entrepreneurship and enterprise are important components in all university curricula Strongly Neutral Strongly Agree Disagree

  6. There is already a lot of enterprise and entrepreneurial activities within modules on our GEES awards Strongly Neutral Strongly Agree Disagree

  7. Enterprise and Entrepreneurship • What’s the difference between these terms? • Why does enterprise and entrepreneurship matter…to you…to students, to the HEI? • How does enterprise feature in your curricula? • How is enterprise currently displayed/promoted within your own Faculty/Department? • How is *success* in this area measured?

  8. Characteristics of entrepreneurs or enterprising people? Individually, please take 1 min. to write down three attributes, in rank order, that you particularly associate with entrepreneurs Entrepreneurs are…

  9. Characteristics of an Entrepreneur: • Visionary; creative; innovative • Adaptable; problem-solver • Persuasive; inspirational • Confident; determined; motivated; a self-believer; selfish • Competitive; ambitious; a risk-taker; one who perseveres • Honest • Disciplined; hard working • Organised; a planner; a decision-maker • Understanding • Leader; team worker • Networker • Taker of opportunities • Researcher; enquirer

  10. Born…or made? • Trait Theory – seeks to identify common links that bind them • Social Development Approach – includes risk, family influences, constraints etc. • Structure Opportunity Model – includes wider social factors such as family, neighbourhood, school, peer group, work environment etc.

  11. Enterprise …involves measures to encourage individuals to become entrepreneurs and equip them with the necessary skills to make a business successful (Mason, 2000) In essence, enterprise is about spotting opportunities, creating new ideas and having the confidence and capabilities to turn these ideas into working realities (Nixon, 2004)

  12. Entrepreneurship …is an activity which leads to the creation and management of a new organisation designed to pursue a unique, innovative opportunity (Hindle & Rushworth, 2000) Fundamentally, it is about using enterprise to create new business, new businesses and ‘can-do’ organisations and services (Nixon, 2004)

  13. Intrapreneurship …is the art of working within an organisation to effect change, by developing new ideas, procedures or products, by innovating practice and thereby enhancing the business (Kneale, 2002)

  14. Social entrepreneurship …involves using entrepreneurial skills for the public good rather than for private profit, that is using imagination to identify new opportunities and determination to bring them to fruition (School for Social Entrepreneurs)

  15. Arguments for Entrepreneurship • In the US, 18% of graduates start their own businesses; in the UK it is 7% • Significant numbers of undergraduates aspire to start their own business • It is not necessarily about *making money* but developing skills and competences

  16. So……….. What are the problems, difficulties and challenges in incorporating [more] enterprise/entrepreneurship into the curriculum?

  17. Problems with incorporating enterprise/entrepreneurship into the curriculum • There is a limited amount of room • Many academics prefer to teach their own research work • It doesn’t fit into traditional academic discourse • Some students aren’t interested in being enterprising or entrepreneurial

  18. Incorporating enterprise/entrepreneurship into the curriculum… Develops and enhances skills, aptitudes and attitudes- provides students with the opportunities and motivation to: • work creatively and independently • develop research, analysis and critical thinking skills • practice time, project, risk and people management skills • be able to work in unfamiliar environments and respond to unexpected events • better understand their own capabilities and traits and to enhance their confidence in their own abilities

  19. Incorporating enterprise/entrepreneurship into the curriculum… Aids business and financial knowledge and understanding • True…many staff in the GEES disciplines may be less well equipped to provide detailed information on the business/financial knowledge required to set up a business than, say, Business School staff • However…supporting the students in the these skills areas empowers them to seek out and take advantage of other sources of information • Many higher education institutions offer: • booklets, workshops, courses, guidance, advice etc. …to support entrepreneurship through their careers services, enterprise units and business schools • Many universities now have graduate business start-up facilities, and incubator units

  20. For example… • Enterprise Fellowship Scheme • Knowledge Transfer Partnerships • SPEED • Entrepreneur Awards • Shell LiveWIRE

  21. A few questions to consider… • What does your Dept. understand by enterprise and entrepreneurship? How is it discussed? • What forms of pedagogy and assessment are appropriate to support enterprise and entrepreneurial activity? • Can you identify where enterprise and entrepreneurship manifest themselves in your programmes?

  22. A few questions to consider… • Where is enterprise and entrepreneurship taught and practiced in the Dept./Faculty? • Are enterprise and entrepreneurship knowledge and skills made explicit within learning outcomes? • Can students actually *be* enterprising and entrepreneurial on your awards? How are they made aware of this, by whom and when?

  23. A few questions to consider… • How is enterprise and entrepreneurial activity monitored and reviewed when updating modules? • How are students acquainted with enterprise and entrepreneurship and of its influence on their self development? • How is enterprise and entrepreneurial activity promoted, advertised and managed within the Dept.?

  24. A few questions to consider… • How are staff currently *developed* into a greater acceptance of, and open attitude toward, enterprise and entrepreneurship? • How is enterprise and an entrepreneurial culture currently given ‘visibility’ in the Dept./Faculty?

  25. Strategies for linking enterprise/entrepreneurship with institutional strategies • Embed within policy and strategies • Explain to, and involve staff and students in, appropriate activities • Audit teaching and assessment strategies – modifying where necessary • Develop special events and structures to promote and facilitate enterprise and entrepreneurship • Review staff enterprise activities and incentives • Review links between staff consultancy/applied research and teaching • Review staff interview and induction processes to integrate aspects of enterprise and entrepreneurship

  26. Strategies for linking enterprise/entrepreneurship with courses and programmes Develop student’s understanding of enterprise by: • Developing curriculum • Developing their awareness • Developing their understanding

  27. Strategies for linking enterprise/entrepreneurship with courses and programmes Develop student’s ability to be enterprising & entrepreneurial by: • Getting them to *be* enterprising • Assessing their enterprise activity • Providing them with some training/development and developing/promoting student’s involvement in enterprise • Embedding enterprise into the curriculum

  28. Strategies for linking enterprise/entrepreneurship with courses and programmes Further develop student’s understanding of enterprise by: • Following through on the strategy delivering the employability policy • Following through on the strategy delivering the PDP policy • Evaluating student’s experience of enterprise and entrepreneurship and feeding this back into the curriculum

  29. Strategies to develop entrepreneurial skills

  30. Question… At what level, and how, is enterprise & entrepreneurship best incorporated into your curriculum?

  31. I would… • Focus on the acquisition of skills and explain why this is important • Get students to interview or talk to or to listen to entrepreneurs • Invite enterprising people in to talk • Simulate pre-start up, and start up, activities • Use case studies including any in-class students who have a business

  32. I wouldn’t… • Use the word ‘entrepreneurship’ too much • Use a text book about entrepreneurship • Use concepts and models • Focus on knowledge acquisition • Only focus on the good or on the bad points of being self-employed

  33. Examples of practice • In groups, please look through the examples of good practice and decide on one or two, but no more, that you collectively ‘like the look of’ • Settle on a short summary of why it appeals to you and what specifically interests you - nominate a spokesperson

  34. More resources… • GEES Enterprise, Skills & Entrepreneurship Resource Pack • HEA’s Supporting Entrepreneurial Skills Matrix (SESM) • Stanford Technology Ventures Program • Institute for Enterprise @ Leeds Met. • Context case materials - Intrapreneurship

  35. More resources… • The Institute for Enterprise – Leeds Met. Uni. • White Rose Centre for Enterprise • Northern Ireland Centre for Entrepreneurship • Business Link • Harvard Business School • Knowledge Transfer Partnerships • Innovation Network • The Lambert Review – Uni./Business Cooperation • Prince’s Trust

  36. More resources… • Social enterprises • Skoll Foundation • Said Business School Oxford – Skoll foundation • Duke Uni. – Centre for Advancement of Social Entrepreneurship • Cabinet Office – Third Sector • Community Action Network

  37. Final thoughts… • Take 5 min. to consider a NEW way that you might modify a learning object or an assessment within a module that are involved with to specifically develop a student’s enterprise skills • Write it down!

  38. and finally… Thank you for your time….. Questions, points, more information? GEES Subject Centre