minority entrepreneurship social enterprise and other opportunities n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Minority Entrepreneurship, Social Enterprise and Other Opportunities PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Minority Entrepreneurship, Social Enterprise and Other Opportunities

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 24

Minority Entrepreneurship, Social Enterprise and Other Opportunities - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 110 Views
  • Uploaded on

Minority Entrepreneurship, Social Enterprise and Other Opportunities. P rof Thomas M. Cooney Academic Director – Institute for Minority Entrepreneurship Dublin Institute of Technology (Ireland) www.thomascooney.com. Income Generation Options For Each Individual. Tax generating Employment

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Minority Entrepreneurship, Social Enterprise and Other Opportunities' - jerrod


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
minority entrepreneurship social enterprise and other opportunities

Minority Entrepreneurship, Social Enterprise andOther Opportunities

Prof Thomas M. Cooney

Academic Director – Institute for Minority Entrepreneurship

Dublin Institute of Technology (Ireland)

www.thomascooney.com

income generation options for each individual
Income Generation OptionsFor Each Individual
  • Tax generating
    • Employment
    • Self-employment
    • Farming
  • Tax usurping
    • State Support / Welfare
    • Crime
  • Tax neutral (although may have positive / negative tax effect)
    • Begging
    • Inheritance
    • Marriage
    • Sponsorship
    • Pensions
    • Gambling
under represented disadvantaged communities
Under-Represented / Disadvantaged Communities
  • Women, Immigrants and Youth are frequently considered in terms of employment and entrepreneurship
  • BUT WHAT ABOUT:
    • Prisoners
    • People with Disabilities
    • Roma / Travellers / Gypsies
    • Gay
  • These communities face additional and distinctive challenges in starting up their own business
ex prisoners economic rationale
Ex-Prisoners - Economic Rationale
  • Approximately 6,364 prisoners in Sweden
  • Re-imprisonment rate is 35%
  • Profile of re-offenders
    • Unemployed prior to re-offence
    • Male
    • Younger (under 30)
  • Career options on leaving prison
    • Back to crime (a prisoner costs on average SEK 2,000 per day)
    • State support (costs state in excess of SEK 320-680 per day)
    • Employment (contributes tax, hard to get a job)
    • Self-employment (contributes to tax and economic activity)
distinctive e ship challenges faced by prisoners
Distinctive E/Ship Challenges Faced By Prisoners
  • Lack of suitable contacts / role models
  • Inability to drive due to lack of license
  • Lack of financial support / credit history
  • Credit payment schemes not available due to record
  • Business insurance very expensive
  • How to present yourself to the bank?*
  • Poor educational and literacy abilities
  • Stigma attached to having a record
  • Lack of follow-through, persistence, dedication (lack will to overcome setbacks)
  • Problems related to the dulling effects prison exerts on some individuals
  • Unable to test-market idea
  • Lack of continuing support
  • Lack of self-confidence (want to set up business while in prison, but rarely follow it up on release)**
training needs
Training Needs
  • Holistic approach needed
  • Seed funding required
  • Business mentors required (not Probation Officers)
  • Must have pre-programme interviews
  • Build one-to-one sessions into the programme
  • Only those being released within 12 months should be on the programme
  • Support of other organisations is critical
employment among disabled
Employment Among Disabled
  • 15.7 % of Swedish population age 16-65 (919,000) have a disability - 47.3% male and 52.7% female
  • Higher rates of unemployment - 67% of disabled persons were in the labour force, compared to 80.3% of non-disabled population
  • Fewer in full-time employment
  • Lower levels of income (internationally) but state support provided to employers in Sweden
  • Poorer levels of education
motivations for self employment
Motivations for Self-Employment
  • Desire to overcome disability
  • Inability to secure / retain job
  • Wish to increase income
  • Flexibility in working hours and workload
  • Rebuild self-esteem
  • Suits / accommodates disability
  • Fear of discrimination in the workplace
  • Autonomy from obstacles such as:
    • Transportation
    • Fatigue
    • Inaccessible work environments
    • Need for personal assistance
  • BUT few tailored self-employment programmes available internationally for people with disabilities
barriers to self employment
Barriers to Self-Employment
  • Difficulties in obtaining start-up capital
    • Lack of own financial resources
    • Poor credit rating
    • Disinterest from the banks
  • Fear of losing regular benefit income (‘welfare trap’)
  • Unhelpful attitudes of business advisers
  • Lack of access to appropriate training and support
developing appropriate support
Developing Appropriate Support
  • Address low educational qualifications
  • Provide tailored training programmes (online)
  • Provide on-going business support
  • Establish microloan funds
  • Implement disability awareness training for business advisers
  • Facilitate self-employment through vocational rehabilitation
  • Actively market services to socially excluded groups
  • Reduce work disincentives
  • Address labour market disadvantages
background to roma travellers
Background to Roma / Travellers
  • It is estimated that there are between 50,000 and 60,000 Roma in Sweden today
  • Recently Swedish police were found to have illegal databases of Roma names
  • Have their own distinct culture
  • Highly entrepreneurial
  • Suffer from limited education, poor health, discrimination, etc
  • General perceptions
    • Want to live on the side of the road,
    • Do not want to be part of Swedish society,
    • Are to blame for crime and anti-social behaviour,
    • Are cheats who do not pay taxes and do not pay for the services that they receive on halting sites,
    • Are associated with violent behaviour (problems with alcohol),
    • Are work shy
  • Significant amounts of money being given to this community through various government schemes
employment
Employment
  • Unemployment rates are very high
  • Roma / Travellers want to access waged employment but have
    • to hide their identity
    • a lack of recognised skills
    • low levels of education
    • to face discrimination in the marketplace
  • Traditional industries and skill needs are being lost to a knowledge-based economy
  • Laws on street trading had negative effect on Roma / Travellers
future developments
Future Developments
  • Enormous challenges involved
    • Societal perception
    • Roma / Traveller issues
    • Few role models
  • Health and education need to be addressed as a priority
  • Future programmes require 1-2-1 mentoring
  • Role models needed to break through at local level
  • Solutions need to be highly innovative and long-term in vision – not more programmes that continue dependency
  • Many previous programme providers have decided to no longer work with the Traveller community.
  • BUT – what does the Traveller Community want for itself?
  • Lessons from / for Maori and Aboriginal communities?
different needs
Different Needs
  • Internationally, 18% of gay community are entrepreneurs
    • ‘Lavender ceiling’
    • No family commitments
    • Higher capital availability
  • Current research by IME suggests that:
    • 11% are entrepreneurs (417 responses)
    • 78.1% view themselves as ‘an entrepreneur who is gay’
    • Target gay community as one of many markets
    • Their desire to contribute to the gay community through employment, etc is of minor significance
    • Have suffered abuse in personal circumstances but positive about business practice
    • Homophobia not an issue in starting a business
  • Swedish gay population is estimated at 6%
bringing it all together
Bringing It All Together
  • “We treat everyone the same” is not working
  • Must take a tailored approach to each community
  • Working with organisations within the community must occur
  • Pre-start-up and early start-up requires our help, afterwards they should be mainstreamed
  • It makes sense economically and socially to take a proactive approach that is based on results and tangible outcomes
  • Significant research, training and policy opportunities exist in all countries for work in these areas
a broader perspective
A Broader Perspective
  • Entrepreneurs are key agents of change and innovation
  • Entrepreneurs are not limited to commercial environments
  • Entrepreneurs are also active in many sectors, including the social sector

… so we call entrepreneurs active in the social sector social entrepreneurs

contribution of social entrepreneurs
Contribution of Social Entrepreneurs
  • Social entrepreneurs are agents of societal change
  • Do the statistics back this up?
    • A global network of social entrepreneurs has found the following from an impact assessment survey:
      • 49% have created significant policy changes at a national level
      • 54% have created significant policy changes at a local level
      • 90% have had their innovative approaches replicated by other outside groups
      • 71% are recognised as leaders in their field after 5 years
  • At the end of the day, it means real impact on real people
bigger context
Bigger Context
  • Remember social entrepreneurs are only one part of the solution
    • Charities, NGO’s, state sectors organisations and private sector initiatives are also essential components of an overall solution
  • However, social entrepreneurs can drive innovation and change and offer the possibility of tackling old problems in new ways, making the world a better place for all
  • Does this mean taking a business approach to tackling social problems?

 It means taking an entrepreneurial approach (with is common to both the business and social sectors) to tackling social problems

slide24

You can make a difference through your research, work, and attitudesorYou could become aSocial Entrepreneur

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1ecKK3S8DOE