Atomic Structure. Chapter 7: Describe the properties of electromagnetic radiation . Understand the origin of light from excited atoms and its relationship to atomic structure. Describe the experimental evidence for waveparticle duality. Describe the basic ideas of quantum mechanics .
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Chapter 7:
Describe the properties of electromagnetic radiation.
Understand the origin of light from excited atoms and its relationship to atomic structure.
Describe the experimental evidence for waveparticle duality.
Describe the basic ideas of quantum mechanics.
Define the three quantum numbers and their relationship to atomic structure.
_______________ ___________
_______________ ___________
________________________________.
Students should be familiar with conversion of units and conversion between l and v.
_____ energy
_____ energy
h = Planck’s constant
= 6.6260693 x 1034 J s
E = h v
Light with large l (small v) has a _____ E.
Light with a short l (large v) has a ____ E.
E = h v
No e observed until light of a certain minimum E is used.
electron should increase with increase
in light frequency—not observed!
minimum E is used.
the number of e ejected depends on
light intensity.
= h c v
Using Planck’s EquationE = h v
v = c/l
E = h v = h c
l
(wavenumber)
Students should be familiar with frequency, wavelength, and energy calculations.
l
1
22
1
n2
(
)
= R
Which Mathematical Expression represents the Regular Patterns of Emission?__________________
__________________.
R = 1.0974 x 107 m1
when n > 2
n = 3 , l =red line
n = 4 , l = green line,
Etc. Balmer Series
An electron (e) traveled about the nucleus in an orbit.
1. Any orbit should be possible and so is any energy.
2. But a charged particle moving in an electric field should emit energy.
End result should be matter selfdestruction!
1. An electron could occupy only __________ ___________or energy levels in which it is stable.
2.The energy of the electron in the atom is ______________.
Rh c
n 2
Potential energy of electron
in the nth level
= En = 
2
E = C (1/ 2
)
n = 1
2
E = C (1/1
)
Atomic Spectra and BohrIf e’s are in quantized energy states, then ∆E of states can have only certain values. This explain sharp line spectra.
1
1
(
)

∆E = Efinal – Einitial = R h c
n2final
n2initial
Louis de Broglie (18921987) proposed that all moving objects have _______ _________________(1924).
For light: (1) E = mc2
(2) E = h v = h c / l
Baseball (115 g) at 100 mph
e with velocity = 1.9 x 108 cm/sec
It is possible to observe wavelike properties only for particles of extremely __________, such as protons, neutrons, and electrons.
l= h
m v
Wave motion:wave length and nodes
4. In contrast to Bohr’s theory – quantization is imposed as a postulate.
5. The is related to the probability of finding the electron within a given region of space = _______________.
6. Energy is known precisely – position is given by a probability. The region of space in which an electron of a given energy is most probably located is called its _______________.
7. The solution to the Schrödinger's equation, for an electron, in a 3D space, are 3 integer numbers = quantum numbers n, l, and ml. These numbers have only certain combination of values.
Determines the ________ of the electron. Also related to size of orbital.
En =  Z2h R / n2
Electrons with the same n value are in the same electron ______ or same electron _________.
Determines the ______ at which electrons circulate about the nucleus. Related to orbital __________.
Electrons with the same l value are in the same _______ and have the same orbital _____ (______). All orbitals in the same subshell have the same ___________.
Determines the _____________ of the orbital motion of the electron. (Clockwise or counterclockwise). Related to ___________ in space of the orbitals within a subshell, this gives the ___________ of orbitals in a subshell.
See Table 7.1 (p 319)
Number of subshells in a shell = n
Number of orbitals in a subshell = 2l + 1
Number of orbitals in a shell = n2
l =0 (s) ; l =1 (p) ; l =2 (d) ; l =3 (f)
Name of orbital = value of n and letter code for l
If n=1 ; l = n1 = 0 ; ml = 0
Only 1 subshell (s); only 1 orbital (1s)
If n=2 ; l = 0, 1 ; ml = +1, 0, 1
There are 2 subshells (s and p)
4 orbitals (the 2s, and three 2p (3 orientations)
surface density plot
or radial distribution plot
a. 4s
b. 4p
c. 4d
d. 4f
e. none
Students should be familiar with definitions of quantum numbers and orbital types.