The Exchange of Goods Sharing Discoveries • Plants, animals developed in very different ways in hemispheres • Europeans—no potatoes, corn, sweet potatoes, turkeys • People in Americas—no coffee, oranges, rice, wheat, sheep, cattle • Arrival of Europeans in Americas changed all this • Previously unknown foods taken back to Europe • Familiar foods brought to Americas by colonists The Columbian Exchange • Voyages launched large-scale contact between Europe and Americas. • Interaction with Native Americans led to sweeping cultural changes. • Contact between the two groups led to the widespread exchange of plants, animals, and disease—the Columbian Exchange. The introduction of beasts of burden to the Americas was a significant development from the Columbian Exchange. The introduction of the horse provided people in the Americas with a new source of labor and transportation.
Slide 17 The Columbian Exchange Population & Environment Plants, animals, and micro-organisms of Afroeurasia were exchanged with those of the Americas across the oceans.
Effects of the Columbian Exchange • Different Foods • Exchange of foods, animals had dramatic impact on later societies • Over time crops native to Americas became staples in diets of Europeans • Foods provided substantial nutrition, helped people live longer • Economics and Gastronomics • Activities like Texas cattle ranching, Brazilian coffee growing not possible without Columbian Exchange; cows, coffee native to Old World • Traditional cuisines changed because of Columbian Exchange • Italian Food Without Tomatoes? • Until contact with Americas, Europeans had never tried tomatoes • Most Europeans thought tomatoes poisonous • By late 1600s, tomatoes had begun to be included in Italian cookbooks
Population & Environment The Columbian Exchange New crops like potatoes and beans spread and improved nutrition worldwide. Luxury products like coffee, chocolate, tea, tobacco, and spices meant new cultural habits for those with money to spend.
Environmental changes resulted from introducing new species Population & Environment Plains Indian hunting buffalo 1800s Global cash crops were grown on large plantations with slave labor. Caribbean sugar plantation 1600s Livestock introduced to the Americas changed indigenous groups’ ways of life.
Effects Widespread Effects of Columbian Exchange felt not only in Europe, Americas • China • Arrival of easy-to-grow, nutritious corn helped population grow tremendously • Also a main consumer of silver mined in Americas • Africa • Two native crops of Americas—corn, peanuts—still among most widely grown • Scholars estimate one-third of all food crops grown in world are of American origin