DIVERSITY OF LIVING THINGS SBI 3U1: UNIT #1 (A Fringing Reef.......vacation, anyone??)
WHAT IS BIODIVERSITY? • It is the number of different species of all living organisms in a given area. • Also called biological diversity
STSE ARTICLE DEFINITIONS Symbiosis: comes from the words " sym " which means together and " biosis " which means life. Symbiosis occurs when two organisms create a union in which each is benefited by the other.
ARTICLE DEFINITIONS Coral: lives a symbiotic life. Inside the sac of each coral polyp lives a one-celled algae called zooxanthellae (zoo-zan-thel-y). The algae gives off oxygen and other nutrients that the coral polyp needs to live. In return, the coral polyp gives the algae carbon dioxide and other substances the algae needs.
CORALS Though corals get most of their food from the byproducts of algae's photosynthesis, they also have barbed, venomous tentacles they can stick out, usually at night, to grab zooplankton and even small fish.
CORAL REEFS So...... Algae are plants or protists – depending on who you talk to. They need sunshine to use photosynthesis so they can provide food and oxygen to the coral. That is why coral reefs grow near the surface of the water where it is sunniest. PHOTOSYTNTHESIS: the process why which plants use chlorophyll to trap sunlight energy and use it to produce glucose.
Photosynthesis: light CARBON DIOXIDE + WATER OXYGEN + GLUCOSE • Photosynthesis is the food-making process for producers, which we often call plants • Photosynthesis is where carbon dioxide and water are combined within a specialized part of a cell (called a chloroplast), in the presence of light, to form the 'cell food' molecule called glucose and with a waste product of oxygen. • This will only happen in cells with chloroplasts (in which there is the molecule called chlorophyll that is involved). • Without photosynthesis all life forms (plants and animals) would use up the oxygen on Earth and it would only be found as carbon dioxide
CORAL: The large structures people see and think of as coral are actually made up of thousands of coral organisms called coral polyps and the skeletons their predecessors have left behind. Corals are animals, but many kinds of coral depend on plants for survival.
Deeper Examination.... The individual coral polyp is a hollow, cylindrical animal (1). The mouth is surrounded by tentacles armed with stinging cells for capturing plankton. During the day these tentacles are folded in the digestive sac (2). Microscopic single-celled algae that give the coral its green, blue or brown colour are located in the tissue of the living coral (3). These symbiotic algae process the wastes produced by the polyps. They use the nitrates, phosphates and carbon dioxide produced in the polyp. Through photosynthesis they generate oxygen and organic compounds which the polyps themselves can use. They may also help the polyp lay down calcium carbonate. In addition to their role as primary producers, the other algae coating much of the reef's surfaces also produce substantial amounts of calcium carbonate. Algae are so important to reef life that it has been suggested that "coral-algal reefs" is a more accurate term than coral reefs
BEAUTIFUL CORAL.... They are restricted to shallow waters of tropical and subtropical regions. Coral ecosystems require: 1)fully marine waters 2) warmtemperatures 3) ample sunlight
MORE DEFINITIONS..... • Ecosystem: a biotic (living) community of plants and animals and its abiotic (non-living) environment functioning as a system E.g. – marine ecosystem, tundra ecosystem • Endangered Species: a species that is close to extinction E.g. – corals
WHO CARES ABOUT CORAL? • provide protection and shelter for many different species of fish. Without coral reefs, these fish are left homeless with nowhere to live and no where to have their babies. • Not only do these fish increase the diversity of our world, but also reef fish and mollusksfeed between 30 and 40 million people every year. • And coral are very important in controlling how much carbon dioxide is in the ocean water. Coral polyp turns carbon dioxide in the water into a limestone shell. Without coral, the amount of carbon dioxide in the water would rise dramatically and that would affect all living things on Earth. • In addition, coral reefs are very important because they protect coasts from strong currents and waves by slowing down the water before it gets to the shore. That is why they are called barrier reefs. They provide a barrier between the ocean and the shore.
REFERENCES • Taken from: http://oceanworld.tamu.edu/students/coral/coral4.htm http://www.eoearth.org/article/Coral_reef http://marine-life.suite101.com/article.cfm/the_symbiotic_relationship_between_coral_and_alg http://images.google.ca/imgres?imgurl=http://plaza.ufl.edu/amb1685/coral%2520polyp1.jpeg&imgrefurl=http://plaza.ufl.edu/amb1685/Coral_Reef.html&usg=__V0GogXfOrMINwvVnZsL6lA9UV18=&h=410&w=612&sz=90&hl=en&start=1&sig2=MZu12RqZlWHpXZBYMK8JFQ&um=1&tbnid=Sn0E3z7YNFxFJM:&tbnh=91&tbnw=136&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dcoral%2Bpolyps%2Band%2Balgae%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26rlz%3D1G1ACAWCENCA336%26um%3D1&ei=YbtkSu7CKZ2UtgOMoLRn