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Diversity of Living Things

Diversity of Living Things

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Diversity of Living Things

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  1. Diversity of Living Things Ch 4.3

  2. Characteristics of ALL LIVING THINGS • Made up of cells • Grow and develop • Species evolve adaptations to environment • Use energy and produce waste • Reproduce • Respond to stimulus • Cellular organization • Cells, tissues, organs, systems, organism

  3. Alive or Not? • Grass • Alive • Maple tree • Alive • Bacteria • Alive • Virus • NOT! • Leaf • Only if attached to the tree • Seed • alive • Water • Not alive (not made up of cells, etc) • Jellyfish • Alive • Air • Fungus spores, bacteria and pollen alive; oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide – not alive • Sun • Not

  4. Classification • 6 Kingdoms, • All have all the characteristics of living things • listed in order of appearance on the planet: • Archaebacteria • Eubacteria • Protists • Fungi • Plants • Animals

  5. archaebacteria • Most ancient (archaic) • Single-celled • No nucleus in cells • Some produce their own food (and oxygen) • Survive in extreme conditions • Your intestines • Hot springs (Yellowstone Nat’l Park) • Possibly on other planets • Methanogens Produce methane gas • Thermal vents in bottom of ocean • Between rock layers deep in earth • Chemically very different from all other life as we know it.

  6. eubacteria • Single celled • No nucleus in cells • Some produce their own food • This is most bacteria we think of • Uses: • In food such as yogurt, cheeses, fermented foods • Consume oils and other pollutants • decomposers • Harms: • Cause illness • Rot foods

  7. Protists • “pre” animals, plants and fungi • Many are single celled • All cells have nucleus • Need moist conditions to survive • All algae and seaweed are protists • Uses: • Algae produces ~70% of earth’s oxygen • We eat seaweed – yum! • Harms: • Some can make you sick (giardia, malaria, sleeping sickness, etc.)

  8. Fungi • Why did the mushroom go to the party? • Because he was such a fun guy!

  9. Fungi • Most are multi-celled, except… • Yeast are single-celled • Cells have a nucleus • Gets energy from others (can’t make own food) • Includes mushrooms, bracket fungi, molds • Benefits: • Decomposers • Some are Delicious! • Used in cheeses, like blue cheese • Harms • Molds, etc • Some are parasites (ring worm)

  10. Plants • Multicellular • Have nucleus • Make own food • Roots to absorb moisture and nutrients • Don’t move • Benefits to humans • Produce oxygen • Food • Shelter, materials, medicine • Two categories of vascular (have stems) plants: • Gymnosperms • Angiosperms

  11. gymnosperms • Literally “naked seeds” • Conifers are main group of these • Pine trees • Produce pine cones • Cone shaped • evergreen • Evolved before angiosperms

  12. Angiosperms • Flowering plants • Most advanced • The flower’s ovary produces fruits which bear the seeds • Pollen + egg cell (inside ovary of flower) = seed

  13. Animals • Multicellular • All cells have nucleus • Move at some point in life • Get energy from outside sources (can’t make own food) • Everything from sponges to humans • Two main categories • Invertebrates • vertebrates

  14. invertebrates • Lack back bone • Main categories, in order of evolution • Sponges • Jellyfish and anemones • Worms (flat, round and segmented) • Mollusks: slugs, octopi, snails and clams • Spiny skinned: starfish, sand dollars, sea cucumbers, sea urchins • Arthropods: insects, crabs, spiders, scorpians, shrimp, lobsters

  15. vertebrates • Have a backbone • Main categories, in evolutionary order: • Jawless fish • Cartilaginous fish • Boney fish • Amphibians • Reptiles • Birds • mammals