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Twelfth Night

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  1. Twelfth Night William Shakespeare

  2. Iambic Pentameter Iambic refers to the stressed and unstressed syllables in a line of poetry – in this case, it creates the rhythm of da DUM (unstressed to stressed) Pentameter means that there are 5 (penta) of these daDUMs per line da DUM da Dum da Dum da DUM da Dum

  3. Iambic Pentameter Act 1, Scene 1, Line 1 : if MUsic BE the FOOD of LOVE, play ON da DUM da DUM da DUM da DUM da DUM

  4. Prose, Rhyme, and Blank Verse Not all of Shakespeare’s writing is done in iambic pentameter In fact, there are three separate styles of writing that he uses in his plays Prose does not use iambic pentameter at all, rhyme sometimes uses iambic pentameter, and blank verse always uses it

  5. Prose Refers to ordinary speech with no regular pattern of accentual rhythm Lines of text do not all have the same number of syllables, nor is there any discernable pattern of stresses Visual Cue: a long passage in prose is typically printed like an ordinary paragraph (filling the width of the page)

  6. Prose Con’t The lines are of print extend from the left margin to right margin with no “hard return” in the middle of a sentence Standard rules of capitalization are followed – only proper nouns (names of people or places), the pronoun “I”, and the first letter of a new sentence are capitalized.

  7. Rhymed Verse Usually appear in rhyming couplets in Shakespeare’s plays (two successive lines of verse of which the final words rhyme with one another) The rhyming pattern of verse appears as aa, bb, cc, etc. with the letters a, b, and, c representing the the rhyming sound of the final word in a line. A single rhyming couplet may appear at the end of a speech or scene (called a capping couplet)

  8. Rhymed Verse When the rhyming couplets are also written in iambic pentameter, they are called heroic couplets Visual cues of rhymed verse: the line of print does not extend to the right margin – there is a “hard return” after every rhymed word the first word of every line is capitalized These are visual cues that the lines are in verse

  9. Rhyming Exceptions Flanders Fields by John McCrae In Flander’s fields the poppies blow, (“a”) Between the crosses, row on row, (“a”) That mark our place; and in the sky, (“b”) The larks, still bravely, singing fly (“b”) Scarcely heard amid the guns below. (“c”)

  10. Blank Verse Refers to unrhymed iambic pentameter The ending words do not rhyme (although the occasional rhyming couplet may be found) There is a recognizable meter – 5 sets of da DUMS Read the passage aloud – if you can hear a recognizable rhythm, the passage is in blank verse

  11. Blank Verse Visual Cues: lines do not extend to fill the whole page (there is a “hard return” at the end of every line) The first word of every line is capitalized without regard for standard rules of capitalization

  12. Figurative Language Figurative language is any writing or speech that is not meant to be taken literally Five types of figurative language used by Shakespeare are personification, similes, metaphors, extended metaphors, and imagery

  13. Personification A type of figurative language in which a nonhuman subject is given human characteristics

  14. Simile A figure of speech in which like or as is used to make a comparison between two basically unlike ideas

  15. Metaphor A figure of speech in which one thing is spoken of as if it were something else.

  16. Extended Metaphor Sustains the metaphor (comparison) for several lines or for an entire poem

  17. Imagery Descriptive or figurative language used to create word pictures for the reader, using details of sight, sound, taste, touch, smell, or movement

  18. Sounds in a Poem Onomatopoeia – the use of words that imitate other sounds Repetition – the use of any element of language (word, sound, phrase) more than once Alliteration – repetition of initial consonant sounds Assonance – repetition of vowel sounds followed by different consonants

  19. Group Activity I am going to separate you into groups and have you look at a specific section of a scenefrom the play I will give you this section, and as a group you are to identify whether it is written in prose, rhyme, or blank verse. I would also like you to identify any figurative language, or sound language in the passage (any of the literary devices we discussed)