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Viruses, Viroids, and Prions. Bits and Pieces that cause disease. Viruses. Viruses contain DNA or RNA and a protein coat Some are enclosed by an envelope Some viruses have spikes Most viruses infect only specific types of cells in one host

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Viruses, Viroids, and Prions


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    1. Viruses, Viroids, and Prions Bits and Pieces that cause disease

    2. Viruses • Viruses contain DNA or RNA and a protein coat • Some are enclosed by an envelope • Some viruses have spikes • Most viruses infect only specific types of cells in one host • Host range is determined by specific host attachment sites and cellular factors

    3. Viruses Figure 13.1

    4. Helical Viruses Figure 13.4a, b

    5. Polyhedral Viruses Figure 13.2a, b

    6. Complex Viruses Figure 13.5a

    7. Viral Taxonomy • Family names end in -viridae • Genus names end in -virus • Viral species: A group of viruses sharing the same genetic information and ecological niche (host). Common names are used for species • Subspecies are designated by a number

    8. Viral Taxonomy • Herpesviridae • Herpesvirus • Human herpes virus 1 • HHV 2 • HHV 3 • Retroviridae • Lentivirus • Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 • HIV 2

    9. Growing Viruses • Viruses must be grown in living cells. • Bacteriophages form plaques on a lawn of bacteria.  Figure 13.6

    10. Growing Viruses • Animal viruses may be grown in living animals or in embryonated eggs. Figure 13.7

    11. Growing Viruses • Animal and plants viruses may be grown in cell culture. • Continuous cell lines may be maintained indefinitely. Figure 13.8

    12. Virus Identification • Cytopathic effects • Serological tests • Detect antibodies against viruses in a patient • Use antibodies to identify viruses in neutralization tests, viral hemagglutination, and Western blot • Nucleic acids • RFLPs • PCR

    13. Virus Identification Figure 13.9

    14. Bacterial cell wall Bacterial chromosome Capsid DNA Capsid Sheath Tail fiber Tail 1 Attachment:Phage attaches to host cell. Base plate Pin Cell wall Plasma membrane 2 Penetration:Phage pnetrates host cell and injects its DNA. Sheath contracted Tail core 3 Merozoites released into bloodsteam from liver may infect new red blood cells Figure 13.10.1

    15. Tail DNA 4 Maturation:Viral components are assembled into virions. Capsid 5 Release:Host cell lyses and new virions are released. Tail fibers Figure 13.10.2

    16. Multiplication of Bacteriophages (Lytic Cycle) • Attachment Phage attaches by tail fibers to host cell • Penetration Phage lysozyme opens cell wall, tail sheath contracts to force tail core and DNA into cell • Biosynthesis Production of phage DNA and proteins • Maturation Assembly of phage particles • Release Phage lysozyme breaks cell wall

    17. One-step Growth Curve Figure 13.11

    18. The Lysogenic Cycle Figure 13.12

    19. Lytic cycl3 Phage causes lysis and death of host cell Lysogenic cycle Prophage DNA incorporated in host DNA Lytic vs Lysogenic

    20. Specialized Transduction Prophage gal gene 1 Prophage exists in galactose-using host (containing the gal gene). Bacterial DNA gal gene 2 Galactose-positive donor cell Phage genome excises, carrying with it the adjacent gal gene from the host. 3 Phage matures and cell lyses, releasing phage carrying gal gene. gal gene 4 Phage infects a cell that cannot utilize galactose (lacking gal gene). Galactose-negative recipient cell 5 Along with the prophage, the bacterial gal gene becomes integrated into the new host’s DNA. 6 Lysogenic cell can now metabolize galactose. Galactose-positive recombinant cell Figure 13.13

    21. Attachment Viruses attaches to cell membrane Penetration By endocytosis or fusion Uncoating By viral or host enzymes Biosynthesis Production of nucleic acid and proteins Maturation Nucleic acid and capsid proteins assemble Release By budding (enveloped viruses) or rupture Multiplication of Animal viruses

    22. Attachment, Penetration, and Uncoating Figure 13.14

    23. Release of an enveloped virus by budding Figure 13.20

    24. Multiplication of DNA Virus Papovavirus 1 Virion attaches to host cell 7 Virions are released Host cell DNA Capsid 2 DNA Virion penetrates cell and its DNA is uncoated Cytoplasm 6 Virions mature Capsid proteins mRNA 5 Late translation; capsid proteins are synthesized 3 Early transcription and translation; enzymes are synthesized 4 Late transcription; DNA is replicated Figure 13.15

    25. Pathways of Multiplication for RNA-Containing Viruses Figure 13.17

    26. Multiplication of a Retrovirus Reverse transcriptase DNA Capsid Virus Two identical + stands of RNA 1 Retrovirus penetrates host cell. Host cell DNA of one of the host cell’s chromosomes 5 Mature retrovirus leaves host cell, acquiring an envelope as it buds out. Reverse transcriptase 2 Virion penetrates cell and its DNA is uncoated Viral RNA Identical strands of RNA 4 Transcription of the provirus may also occur, producing RNA for new retrovirus genomes and RNA that codes for the retrovirus capsid and envelope proteins. Viral proteins RNA 3 The new viral DNA is tranported into the host cell’s nucleus and integrated as a provirus. The provirus may divide indefinitely with the host cell DNA. Provirus Figure 13.19

    27. Cancer • Activated oncogenes transform normal cells into cancerous cells. • Transformed cells have increased growth, loss of contact inhibition, tumor specific transplant and T antigens. • The genetic material of oncogenic viruses becomes integrated into the host cell's DNA.

    28. Oncogenic Viruses • Oncogenic DNA Viruses • Adenoviridae • Heresviridae • Poxviridae • Papovaviridae • Hepadnaviridae • Oncogenic RNA viruses • Retroviridae • Viral RNA is transcribed to DNA which can integrate into host DNA • HTLV 1 • HTLV 2

    29. Latent Viral Infections Virus remains in asymptomatic host cell for long periods Cold sores, shingles Persistent Viral Infections Disease processes occurs over a long period, generally fatal Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (measles virus) Latent vs Persistent

    30. Prions • Infectious proteins • Inherited and transmissible by ingestion, transplant, & surgical instruments • Spongiform encephalopathies: Sheep scrapie, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome, fatal familial insomnia, mad cow disease • PrPC, normal cellular prion protein, on cell surface • PrPSc, scrapie protein, accumulate in brain cells forming plaques

    31. Prions PrPSc PrPc 2 3 4 1 Lysosome Endosome 5 6 7 8 Figure 13.21

    32. Plant Viruses • Plant viruses enter through wounds or via insects • Viroids • Viroids are infectious RNA; potato spindle tuber disease Figure 13.22

    33. Some Plant Viruses Table 13.6

    34. Virus Families • Single-stranded DNA, nonenveloped viruses • Parvoviridae • Human parvovirus • Fifth disease • Anemia in immunocompromised patients

    35. Double-stranded DNA, nonenveloped viruses • Mastadenovirus • Respiratory infections in humans • Tumors in animals

    36. Double-stranded DNA, nonenveloped viruses • Papillomavirus (human wart virus) • Polyomavirus • Cause tumors, some cause cancer

    37. Double-stranded DNA, nonenveloped viruses • Orthopoxvirus (vaccinia and smallpox viruses) • Molluscipoxvirus • Smallpox, molluscum contagiosum, cowpox

    38. Double-stranded DNA, nonenveloped viruses • Simplexvirus (HHV1 and HHV 2) • Varicellavirus (HHV 3) • Lymphocryptovirus (HHV 4) • Cytomegalovirus (HHV 5) • Roseolovirus (HHV 6) • HHV 7 • Kaposi's sarcoma (HHV 8) • Some herpesviruses can remain latent in host cells

    39. Double-stranded DNA, nonenveloped viruses • Hepadnavirus (Hepatitis B virus) • Use reverse transcriptase to produce DNA from mRNA

    40. Single-stranded RNA, + strand, nonenveloped • Enterovirus • Enteroviruses include poliovirus and coxsackievirus • Rhinovirus • Hepatitis A virus

    41. Single-stranded RNA, + strand, nonenveloped • Hepatitis E virus • Norovirus (Norwalk agent) causes gastroenteritis

    42. Single-stranded RNA, + strand, nonenveloped • Alphavirus • Alphaviruses are transmitted by arthropods; include EEE, WEE • Rubivirus (rubella virus)

    43. Single-stranded RNA, + strand, nonenveloped • Arbovirusescan replicate in arthropods; include yellow fever, dengue, SLE, and West Nile viruses • Hepatitis C virus

    44. Single-stranded RNA, + strand, nonenveloped • Coronavirus • Upper respiratory infections

    45. Single-stranded RNA, – strand, one RNA strand • Vesiculovirus • Lyssavirus (rabies virus) • Cause numerous animal diseases

    46. Single-stranded RNA, – strand, one RNA strand • Filovirus • Enveloped, helical viruses • Ebola and Marburg viruses

    47. Single-stranded RNA, – strand, one RNA strand • Paramyxovirus • Morbillivirus • Paramyxovirus causes parainfluenza, mumps and Newcastle disease

    48. Single-stranded RNA, – strand, one RNA strand • Hepatitis D virus • Depends on coinfection with Hepadnavirus

    49. Single-stranded RNA, – strand, multiple RNA strands • Influenzavirus (Influenza viruses A and B) • Influenza C virus • Envelope spikes can agglutinate RBCs

    50. Single-stranded RNA, – strand, multiple RNA strands • Bunyavirus (CE virus) • Hantavirus