Market Revolution • Rise of Textile mills in the Northeast by mid century. • Specialization takes place – raise one or two crops • People bought and sold goods rather than making them for themselves.
The Entrepreneurial Spirit • Capitalism – economic growth whereby private businesses and individuals control means of production. • Entrepreneurs – these people invested their own money in businesses. Risk takers
Impact on the Household Economy • American agricultural continued to flourish. • Farmers produced important goods for the American industrial machine and became important consumers for the manufactured goods. • Goods grew less expensive. People became consumers.
Inventions and Improvements • Shoes and sewing machines – these examples show how life became easier. • Clothing prices tumbled by more than 75% as a result of these new inventions.
Communication and Transportation • Telegraph – Morse created a device that would take a signal less than 1 minute to go from Washington D.C. to Baltimore. • Transportation – steam engine – moved goods quicker to market • Canals – were built to move goods where rivers did not exist
New Markets Link Regions • Northeast – Shipping and Manufacturing • Midwest – Farming • South – cotton and tobacco
Manifest Destiny • The U.S. would inevitably expand west to the Pacific Ocean because it was right and proper, according to many Americans. • 6 Reasons – See handout
Mexico Invites Settlers • Mexico gained independence from Spain in 1821. • Mexico offered land grants in 1821 and 1823 to anyone who brought in settlers. The only stipulations were that the settlers had to follow Mexican laws and obey the Roman Catholic Religion.
Stephen Austin • 1823 – led 300 families into Mexico to establish a colony (cotton) along Brazos River. • Each family received 200 free acres of farm land. They did not have to pay taxes on the land for six years. • Colony prospered – 1000s of Americans came to Texas
Mexican / American Difficulties Increase • 1830 – 20,000 Anglos / English speaking whites in Mexico • 1000 – 1500 slaves working cotton and sugar fields. • 1829 – Mexico abolished slavery – Mexico did not want slavery in the territory. They hoped that Texans would free their slaves. • Influx of Americans who spoke a different language and practices a different religion (Protestantism)
Mexican / American Difficulties Continued • Mexico was worried about American expansionist tendencies (extending the borders of the United States.
Mexican Response • 1830 – Mexican government closed Texas border to any further immigration. • Taxed heavily – the importation of American goods to Mexico (Texas) • Sent troops north to Texas to ensure laws were observed • AMERICANS KEPT COMING IN AND SMUGGLING GOODS.
Stephen Austin Heads to Mexico City • 1833 – Stephen Austin went to Mexico City (nations capital) to ask the Mexican Union for a petition for Texas to become an independent state. • Austin’s petition was rejected. He was arrested for treason and spent 18 months in jail.
New Personalities • Several new comers saw no reason to live under Mexico’s law. • Sam Houston – former Congressman from Tennessee • Davie Crockett
Mexico Abolishes State Governments • President Antonio Lopez Santa Anna abolishes all state governments in Mexico (Texas). • He marched north with 6,000 troops towards the Alamo (chapel and fort in San Antonio).
The Alamo • Alamo – Feb 23 until March 6, 1836 • Mexican troops scaled walls killing 187 American defenders • 1600 Mexicans killed during the battle • Survivors – Mrs. Dickenson along with her infant child and two slaves
Oppression • Many American Texans saw a similarity between oppression suffered by the colonist under Great Britain and their situation with General Santa Anna. • They felt that their fundamental rights were being violated.
Texas Declares its Independence • Constitution like the one the U.S. developed • Temporary government • Alamo aroused the fighting fury among the Texans • Six weeks later – Sam Houston leads an army into Mexico to capture Santa Anna • Houston forced Santa Anna to sign a treaty pledging to recognize Texas as an independent state
Sam Houston Elected President of the Lone Star Republic • Annexation of Texas – North opposed admitting more slave states and feared war with Mexico • West & South – wanted to admit Texas as a slave state since it had been won by America. • Great Britain – welcomed the idea of an independent Texas. However, they were against slavery.
Why did Britain Favor an Independent Texas? • 1. Counterweight American power • Buy cotton and sell manufactured goods to Texas without paying a U.S. protective tariff
Texas Becomes the 28th State • December 28, 1845 • This infuriated Mexico • Santa Fe Trail – 800 miles Missouri – New Mexico – economic route