Report: CROATIA – SOYBEAN PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION Aleksandra Sudaric Agricultural Institute Osijek International Soya Symposium 2012, Wien, Austria
SOYBEAN PRODUCTION VOLUMES Utilization of soybean: - feed (primary)- human food (less) 70%
ECOLOGICAL - soil: eutric cambisol, hydromorphous black soil; - precipitation: 630-840mm; VARIETIES Maturity group: 00,0,I, II; 80% local varieties 20% introduced GMO-free CONDITIONS FOR PRODUCTION OPTIMAL AGROTECHNIQUE - typical date of sowing: April – 10 May - typical time of harvesting: September – 10 October
STATUS - Varieties-cultivation only GMO free, legislation - Weed– combination of cultural, mechanical and chemical practices - Diseases- crop rotation, fungicides - Insects - Tetranychus atlanticus - Drought – last years CHALLENGES - Continued genetic improvement - Diseases: planting tolerant varieties - Irrigation – seed production - Promotion of GMO-free soya cultivation - Collaboration and integration of the Danube region PLANT PROTECTION
INCREASE of soybean production in the last 10 years • Good production conditions • Cultural practices advances • Genetic improved varieties – continual and intensive breeding work resulted with high-yielding(>3.5 t/ha)and high-quality(protein 41%; oil 21%)local varieties (00, 0, I; GMO-free); - national breeding programs: Agricultural Institute Osijek(70% in production),Faculty of Agriculture Zagreb • Support of Goverment - financing scientific projects, producers • High market demands – particularly for local varieties – GMO-free, adapted to local conditions
POTENTIAL IN SOYBEAN PRODUCTION • Status:50 000 ha, yield average about 3 t/ha what means only 50% of state demand for soy products and rest has to be imported; • The increase in the quantity of soybean produced is possible by: - increasing the area under soybean, particularly in the private estates; - less/non further increasing the area under other oilcrops due to adverse crop rotation with soybean; - increasing grain yield per area unit (continual breeding work).
TRADE STRUCTURE • annual production about 155 000 t of seed • need for sowing on public and private sector - about 6000 t seed (warehouse) • Processing – about 150 000 t of seed produced locally; import • Factory Sojara d.d. in Zadar – only large (main) processor of soybean seed in soybean meal, oil and lecitin; capacity 300 000 t of seed/year • several lesser processors of soya seed for feed/food
Situation of GMO • The Croatian Parliament has adopted several laws regulating GMOs; • The law provides no labelling treshold, but this has been set at 0.9% for food and 0% for seeds; • To date, in Croatia no permits have been granted for the deliberate release of GMOs – either for field trials or commercial cultivation, and no food or feed products containing GMOs have been approved; • There are now 14 GMO-free counties in Croatia, out of a total of 20 counties; 80% population against GMO.
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT Focus on: GRAIN YIELD (> 5 t/ha) Productivity enhancement GRAIN QUALITY protein > 41%, oil >21%, isoflavones Production of safe and high quality feed and food in balance with nature tolerance to BIOTIC & ABIOTIC factors soybean and Bradyrhizobium genotypes with higher capacity of N2 fixation