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American Revolution

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  1. American Revolution Unit IIA AP United States History

  2. Salutary Neglect/Benign Neglect • British absenteeism • Distance between England and America • Political turmoil and relative peace • Colonies virtually on their own • Developed unique economies based on region • Self-government • Still considered themselves as British subjects entitled to same rights and privileges

  3. Britain Exerts More Control • Navigation Acts strengthened • Increased concept of mercantilism • Vice-admiralty courts • Merchant courts, juryless, “corrupt judges” • Board of Trade • Develop mercantilist policies over colonies • Europe at war • King William’s War (1689-1697) • Queen Anne’s War (1702-1713) • King George’s War (1744-1748)

  4. French and Indian War (1754-1763) • Serious conflict between England and France with a primary focus in the Americas • Most Natives allied with French • Increased British troop activity in America • Colonists contributed to effort • Albany Plan of Union (1754) • Benjamin Franklin’s idea for colonial union for common defense - FAILED • British Victory and End of Salutary Neglect • British believed more control necessary • Colonial pride

  5. Proclamation of 1763 • Pontiac’s Rebellion (1763) • Extensive Native alliance to deter colonists • Britain restricts further colonial westward expansion • Prevent hostilities between colonists and Natives • Colonists upset to restriction of available land

  6. Preliminary Rebellions • Paxton Boys (1764) • Pennsylvania Scots-Irish upset with Quaker government and toleration of natives • Massacred Susquehannock • Regulators (1764-1771) • NC frontiersmen upset with eastern corruption

  7. The Age of REASON Rationalism Laws of Nature applied to society Deism “the clockmaker” Absent of human affairs Inspired by John Locke Second Treatise on Government Philosophes Voltaire Individual liberties Freedom of expression Montesquieu Separation of powers Rousseau Social Contract General welfare Wollstonecraft The Enlightenment

  8. British Prime Ministers Believed colonies should foot the bill for wars and defense Encouraged unrestricted development of colonies Robert Walpole 1721-1742 George Grenville 1763-1765 Charles Townshend Chancellor of Exchequer 1766-1767 Enforced Parliament’s power but defended colonies and desire for representation Supported taxation of the colonies and ran Parliament during Revolution William Pitt 1766-1768 Frederick North 1770-1782

  9. Sugar Act of 1764 Revenue tax Quartering Act of 1765 Stamp Act of 1765 First direct tax Declaratory Act of 1766 Parliament’s right to tax whatsoever Townshend Acts of 1767 Pay royal colonial officials Writs of assistance Tea Act of 1773 Support British East India Company “Intolerable Acts” Coercive Acts of 1774 Massachusetts Government Act (royal appointments) Port Act (Boston closed) Administration of Justice Act (trial of royal officials moved) Quebec Act of 1774 Appointed government; Catholicism recognized Prohibitory Act of 1775 Colonies in open rebellion “Do we need to know all the Acts?”YES“*ML!”

  10. Colonial Reaction to Acts • Stamp Act of 1765 • James Otis – “no taxation without representation” • Stamp Act Congress • Declaration of Rights and Grievances • Trial by jury, direct representation, rights of Englishmen • Sons and Daughters of Liberty • Townshend Acts of 1767 • Letters From a Farmer in Pennsylvania – John Dickinson • Sovereignty of colonies • Boston Massacre (1770) • Committees of Correspondence • Shadow network of information • Tea Act of 1773 • Boston Tea Party • Intolerable Acts of 1774 • First Continental Congress • Suffolk Resolves • Massachusetts denial of acts

  11. Fought and died in wars with Natives and European enemies Risk life and health in a new environment Proud and loyal English subjects entitled to rights Developed economies which benefit the Empire Familiar with life in colonies more so than in England God-given liberty Provide protection from Natives and Europeans Benefit exceptionally well from success of British Empire with little contribution Abide by the rule of law Colonists as second-class citizens “virtual representation” Britons pay 2-3 times taxes than colonists Which Side Are You On? Colonies British Empire/Parliament

  12. British Supporters of Colonists • William Pitt • Prime Minister who supported colonists’ disagreements with acts of Parliament • John Wilkes • Parliament member who defended the colonists against the acts by Parliament

  13. Britons Against Colonies • Thomas Hutchinson • Governor of Massachusetts • Enforced British authority • King George III

  14. Lexington and Concord (April 19, 1775) • Organization of militia (Minutemen) compels Governor Gage to send 700 British soldiers to arrest rebel leaders and confiscate arms • William Dawes and Paul Revere, “The British are coming!” • 8 Minutemen die and 1 Redcoat wounded at Lexington • “Shot heard ‘round the world” at Concord (about from FIU to South Beach)

  15. Second Continental Congress • Battles of Breed’s Hill and Bunker Hill (June 1775) • British victory costing 1,154 of 2,200 • Americans lost 311 • Olive Branch Petition (July 1775) • Directly sent to George III • American Continental Army and Washington • George III pronounced colonies in open rebellion • Prohibitory Act: blockade of American ports; declaration of war • Declaration of Independence in July 1776 • Virtually creating the “United States of America”

  16. Thomas Paine’s Common Sense • Pamphlet published in January 1776 • Society grows to the point of requiring government with laws and representation • Denounces monarchism and aristocracy • “an island cannot rule a continent” • “America is not English but a mix of peoples” • “distance a problem” • “threat of European wars” • “colonies exploited”

  17. Declaration of Independence • Applies laws of Nature • People’s right to revolution • “self-evident” • “all men are created equal” • Endowed…with certain unalienable rights…life, liberty, pursuit of happiness” • List of grievances against the British Empire, specifically toward George III • WHAT’S WRONG WITH THIS PICTURE IN REGARDS TO AMERICAN SOCIETY?

  18. American Advantages/Tactics Militia’s guerilla tactics Familiar with the territory and environment Prolong the war Hope for support from Britain’s enemies (France, Spain) American Disadvantages No well-trained regular army or officers Insufficient funds and supplies Small support among population (1/3 loyalists, 1/3 neutral, slaves) British Advantages/Tactics 11 million Britons to America’s 2.5 million (1/3 slaves or loyalists) World’s largest navy Disciplined and experienced army Support from Loyalists, Natives, and slaves Entrenched forts and garrisons in America British Disadvantages War debt and war fatigue American privateers (pirates) hounded British ships Unpopular home support Spread thin around the world America vs. Britain

  19. Patriots, Loyalists, Neutrals • Patriots (aka Whigs) supported independence, but may disagree on course of action (war, petition, boycott, etc.) • Advocated independence based on rhetoric and education on rights and liberties • Loyalists (aka Tories) supported Britain • Loyalty to the Crown • Agreed about excess taxes, but against separation • Fear of a possible American victory • Recent British immigrants • Some could care less due to ignorance, apathy, or economical reasons

  20. In the North Boston under siege and New York captured in 1776 Battles of Trenton (1776) and Princeton (1777) boosted morale Gates defeats Burgoyne at Saratoga (Oct 1777) Valley Forge In the West An escalation of Natives vs. Expansionists Natives lost large amounts of lands in defeats Resentment toward pro-British Natives will linger In the South British plan to capture Southern ports and lands to launch re-invasion of the North Lord Cornwallis claimed victories, but stalled in the South as Americans refortified Battle of Yorktown (Aug-Oct 1781) Washington’s army, Lafayette’s force, and French fleet laid siege to Cornwallis British surrender led to American victory The War

  21. Treaty of Paris (1783) • John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, John Jay • British recognition of USA • USA granted all lands east of the Mississippi • Natives left out of the treaty • States applying own interests led to British remaining in Northwest forts • Brand new and bigger nation… What now? Treaty of Paris by Benjamin West

  22. Before the war, the distinction between elites and commoners was visibly evident given the economical success of the colonies Patriotic rhetoric of equality and liberty regained a sense of egalitarianism within the population Rights and liberties a central core value Promote the common good Merit, not inheritance, defined a man Against corruption More and more self-made men participate in political leadership Despite a new perception, the small upper class retained its status as owners of most of America’s wealth A New American Society/Republicanism

  23. Upper-class women promoted cause through correspondence Participated against Stamp Act and Townshend Acts Spinning bees Ran households and estates during husband’s absence Formed campaigns to promote war and funds Abigail Adams and “…Remember the Ladies.” Women of the Revolution

  24. Increased tensions between colonies and Britain inspired slaves to resist Most slaves sided with British Lord Dunmore’s Proclamation (1775) Join to reassert royal authority 500,000 blacks in America Only 25,000 were free men Some slaves escaped to freedom in confusion of war Pose as free men Escape on British ships or to British territories Participation as Patriots Early ban Armies needed support Northern states lead to abolish or phase out slavery Quakers led the charge Slave imports almost eliminated New opportunities, same discrimination Free blacks as second-class citizens Prince Hall and “return to Africa” Granted civil rights Slavery as “necessary evil” Blacks and Slaves of the Revolution

  25. Natives of the Revolution • Half of the population from 1754 to 1783 wiped out • New land acquisitions led to increased hostilities • Adapted lifestyle by incorporating European goods • Appealed to Congress on recognizing territories; little to no support