Uscg airsta miami epirb s how they work df 430 mh 65c d mh60t hu25 c 130j hc144
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USCG AIRSTA MIAMI EPIRB’s How They Work & DF-430 MH-65C & D, MH60T, HU25, C-130J, HC144. January 2010. How the System Works. LEOSAR & GEOSAR Satellites. Types of Beacons. Maritime Distress Beacon. EPIRB s 406 MHz (w/ 121.5 homer) Automatic activation when out of bracket and wet.

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Uscg airsta miami epirb s how they work df 430 mh 65c d mh60t hu25 c 130j hc144 l.jpg

USCG AIRSTA MIAMIEPIRB’sHow They Work&DF-430MH-65C & D, MH60T, HU25, C-130J, HC144

January 2010


How the system works l.jpg
How the System Works

L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS


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LEOSAR & GEOSAR Satellites

L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS


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Types of Beacons

Maritime Distress Beacon

  • EPIRBs

    406 MHz (w/ 121.5 homer)

    Automatic activation when out of bracket and wet.

    Floats upright to transmit

    Strobe light

    Min 48 hour transmit

    Some GPS enabled

L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS


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Types of Beacons

Distress Beacon for Personal Use (Land Rescue)

  • PLBs

    406 MHz (w/ 121.5 homer)

    Manual activation

    Carried on persons

    May or may not float

    Held out of water to transmit

    NO Strobe light required

    Min 24 hour transmit

    Some GPS Enabled

L Yarbrough/D7 CFVS


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Types of Beacons

Aviation Distress Beacon

  • ELTs

    Transmit on 121.5 (most) or 406 MHz

    Integrated 121.5 MHzhomer

    Crash activation

    Floats upright to transmit

    No Strobe light

    Min 48 hour transmit

L Yarbrough/D7 CFVS


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EPIRB

  • Maritime Satellite

  • Emergency

  • Position-Indicating

  • RadioBeacon

L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS


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EPIRB Operational Requirements

  • EPIRB 406 MHz Signal - 5 Watts

  • Short bursts at approximately 50 second intervals (varies between 47.5 and 52.5 s), with a transmission time of 440 ms or 520 ms.

  • Transmits in the 406.0 to 406.1 MHz band.

  • Transmission consists:

    • unmodulated carrier, for 160 ms,

    • short synchronization signal, signal inverted for test,

    • Digital message that provides stored information (identification, nationality, type of user),

    • Optionally, current information like, type of emergency and estimated location.

      Designed to prevent inadvertent activation

L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS


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Hex ID

  • EPIRB’s identification, when decoded into its 15 character hexadecimal representation, which is the EPIRB’s unique identifier number.

  • http://www.cospas-sarsat.org/Beacons/decode.htm

  • Normally readout in 3 groups of 5 characters. Example: ABCDE 12345 ABCDE

L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS


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Battery Replacement

  • Required at Expiration date or if EPIRB activated for any reason besides test.

  • Useful Life = power for all required testing + 48 hrs operation.

L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS


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EPIRB Operational Requirements

  • Positive visual and/or audible indication that EPIRB is activated (strobe light flashing).

  • Easily manually deployed, activate, and deactivated, and transferred to survival craft.

  • Not be activated or deactivated by conditions encountered in maritime environment.

L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS


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EPIRB Control

  • Ready – EPIRB should be ON in the water unless in its bracket. Sometimes labeled “OFF”.

  • ON – EPIRB operates regardless of location or orientation. Unconditional “ON” position. (Requires two physical actions)

  • Test – Self-test Function.

L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS


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Prevention of Inadvertent Activation

  • Must be fitted with means to prevent inadvertent activation and deactivation.

  • Not automatically activate when water washes over while in bracket.

  • Most EPIRBs use bracket with magnet to disable activation circuit.

L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS


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EPIRB Deactivation

  • Remove beacon from water and dry off or replace in bracket

  • Move switch to OFF or Ready position

  • If the above failed then:

    • Remove cover and disconnect battery

L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS


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EPIRB Activation

  • How

    • By definition it transmits:

      • out of bracket and wet,

      • by manual switch, in or out of bracket,

        Or

    • Self test

L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS


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EPIRB Activation

  • What Happens;

    • Beacon starts transmitting its Unique Hex ID in a 406 MHz digital message,

    • 121.5 MHz homer with an audible warble,

    • Strobe Light starts flashing.

L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS


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Rockwell Collins DF-430

L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS


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NAV Page

  • LS3 access the DF Control Page.

  • Accesses the NAV Page.

L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS


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DF Control Page

  • Access to BCN, TAC, and SAR pages.

  • Display page for LAT/Long if received.

 PRESETS

Df ctrl

MODE: ON BCN 

TAC SAR

C/S ------------------------------------

↕[]

L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS


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DF-430 Utilization by USCG Aircraft

  • DF-430 Modes: Despite aircraft unique installations, all interfaces provide 3 basic modes of operations:

    • TAC SCAN - Tactical Scan

    • SAR SCAN - SAR

    • BCN - Beacon

L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS


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TAC Scan

  • TAC Scan - will scan: 121.5 MHz, 243.0 MHz, 406 (.025 / .028 / .037) MHz, + Manually entered frequency.

    • Signal detection on operator selected tac freq, will result in TAC DET annunciation + bearing pointer.

    • 406, 121, or 243 detection will get DET annunciation, No bearing pointer.

L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS


Sar scan l.jpg
SAR Scan

  • SAR Scan - will scan: 121.5 MHz, 243.0 MHz, and 406 (.025 / .028 / .037) MHz, with priority to 406 MHz.

    • Signal detection 406, will result in DET annunciation + bearing pointer.

    • 121, or 243 detection will get DET annunciation, No bearing pointer.

L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS


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BCN

  • Beacon provides single-channel access to one of six signals: 121.5, 243.0, 406 MHz, CH=16 (156.800MHz), CH-70 (156.525 MHz), or ARGOS (401.650 MHz).

  • ARGOS (401.650) is the frequency for your SLDMB.

L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS


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Embedded GPS Data

  • Only some Beacons have GPS

  • Data only viewable if the aircraft DF-430 on the DF Control Page.

  • GPS data should be considered confirming source.

  • Fly the Needle on your DF bearing pointer.

L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS


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DF Control Page

  • C/S Will display LAT/LONG when position transmitting capable 406 is detected. LS4s will then copy position into scratchpad.

 PRESETS

Df ctrl

MODE: ON BCN 

TAC SAR

C/S ------------------------------------

↕[]

L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS


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“fly-to-waypoint”.

  • From the DF Control Page, the aircrew will be able to capture GPS data into their scratchpad and create a “fly-to-waypoint”.

  • This can assist:

    • if the EPIRB signal is lost, or

    • at EPRIB passage as the FMS needle may swing before the DF needle due to ~50 sec transmit cycle of beacon.

L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS


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DF Bearing Pointer

  • DF pointer is relative (not stablilized)

  • DF pointer only updates on receipt of next 406 MHz EPIRB burst transmission.

    • Will seem jerky.

  • EPIRB transmission only every ~50 sec.

  • Burst transmission only half sec duration.

L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS


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Figure-of-Merit (FOM) Values

  • DF-430 will display a FOM value in range of 0-255. Only displays on TAC, SAR, or BCN Scan Page.

  • Practical application is as a secondary level of confidence the aircraft is tracking towards target.

L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS


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406 MHz Detection Range

L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS


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Operational Considerations

  • Transit in SAR Scan, unless tasking indicates a need to monitor a tactical freq.

  • Greatest range/ earliest detection opportunity at higher altitudes.

  • If a 406 signal is detected, DF needle will point and the GPS position displayed when received.

L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS


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406 Beacon Tests

  • Every 406 MHz Beacon is supposed to be tested (using the self-test function) once every month.

  • Each test transmits one live 406 burst.

  • Wait at least two bursts before you react to a 406 Det.

L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS


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Operational Considerations

  • GPS positions from EPIRBs have been inaccurate. If the FMS and DF needles split, wait for next 406 burst and then Follow the DF Needle.

  • As a second confirming indication, watch for increasing FOM.

L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS


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EPIRB Prosecution

What Does the CC/RCC

do with a 406 Alert?

L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS


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Registered/Unlocated 406MHZ EPIRB

  • 1. RCC or RSC on receipt of unlocated registered 406 EPIRB:

    • a. Place case in the DISTRESS phase.

    • b. Assume SMC.

    • c. Determine status of vessel from contact number listed, available databases, etc.

L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS


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Registered/Unlocated 406MHZ EPIRB (cont)

  • 2. If vessel is determined to be safe underway or in port:

    • a. Close case. A case will be claimed for all 406 alerts prosecuted

L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS


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Registered/Unlocated 406MHZ EPIRB (cont)

  • 3. If vessel is underway and cannot be contacted:

    • a. Issue UMIB for Home Port and general area in which vessel is believed to be operating.

    • b. Contact AMVER Ships and request callouts for the vessel.

    • c. Contact USMCC and request satellite forecast for the geographic area.

L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS


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Registered/Unlocated 406MHZ EPIRB (cont)

  • 3. If vessel is underway and cannot be contacted:

    • d. If the next forecast satellite pass does not locate the beacon consider sending an SRU to the area to attempt to hail the vessel or DF on 406/121.5MHZ homing signal. Continue investigating to try to determine last known position/probable track of vessel for additional searches.

L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS


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Registered/Unlocated 406MHZ EPIRB (cont)

  • 3. If vessel is underway and cannot be contacted:

    • e. If vessel cannot be located after reasonable search is conducted, search will be suspended.

L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS


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Registered/Unlocated 406MHZ EPIRB (cont)

  • 4. If SRU is tasked to search for vessel:

    • a. Proceed top LKP/tasked search area. Make callouts for vessel and attempt to DF homing beacon on 406/121.5MHZ.

L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS


Registered unlocated 406mhz epirb cont40 l.jpg
Registered/Unlocated 406MHZ EPIRB (cont)

  • 4. If SRU is tasked to search for vessel:

    • b. If signal cannot be DF’d once on scene and unless otherwise tasked, aircraft shall complete a VS search at radius of 12NM. Vessels shall complete the same search at 3NM.

L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS


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“A” solution located 406MHZ EPIRB

  • 1. RCC or RSC on receipt “A” solution located 406MHZ EPIRB:

    • a. Place case in the DISTRESS phase.

    • b. Assumed SMC.

    • c. Determine status of vessel from contact number listed (if registered), available databases, etc.

L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS


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“A” solution located 406MHZ EPIRB (cont)

  • 2. RCC or RSC if vessel is determined to be safe/underway or in port:

    • a. Close case.

L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS


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“A” solution located 406MHZ EPIRB (cont)

  • 3. RCC or RSC if vessel is underway and cannot be contacted:

    • a. Issue UMIB for general area in which vessel is believed to be operating.

    • b. Contact AMVER ships in vicinity and request callouts for vessel.

    • c. Dispatch SRU to located vessel and determine status. SRU’s should be tasked to DF on the signal.

L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS


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“A” solution located 406MHZ EPIRB (cont)

  • 3. RCC or RSC if vessel is underway and cannot be contacted:

    • d. If vessel cannot be located after reasonable

      search is conducted, search will be suspended.

L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS


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“A” solution located 406MHZ EPIRB (cont)

  • 4. SRU if tasked to search for vessel:

    • a. Proceed to position/tasked search area. Make callouts for vessel and attempt to DF homing beacon on 406/121.5MHZ.

    • b. If a signal cannot be DF’d once on scene and unless otherwise tasked, aircraft shall complete a VS search at radius of 12NM. Vessels shall complete the same search at 3NM.

L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS


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“B” solution with alert probability less than or equal to 20%

1. RCC or RSC on receipt “B” solution with probability less than or equal to 20%:

  • Place case in the UNCERTAINTY phase.

  • Assume SMC.

  • Coordinate investigation with RCC responsible for “A” solution. If investigation determines “B” solution is the likely position, respond in same manner as an “A” solution.

L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS


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“B” solution with alert probability greater than 20% to 20%

  • 1. RCC or RSC on receipt “B” solution with probability greater than 20%:

    • a. Place case in the ALERT phase.

    • b. Assumed SMC.

    • c. Coordinate investigation with RCC responsible for “A” solution. If investigation determines “B” solution is the likely position, respond in same manner as an “A” solution.

L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS


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Unregistered/Unlocated to 20%EPIRB alerts:

  • 1. RCC or RSC investigate identity of vessel through vessel data bases.

  • 2. RCC or RSC contact RCC country of vessel registered and attempt to determine vessel’s status.

L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS


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False Alerts to 20%

L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS


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False Alerts to 20%

  • If a false alert is determined upon arrival on-scene complete the following actions:

    • Have vessel de-activate the beacon.

    • Have vessel provide the beacon “HexID”

    • Have vessel provide the reason beacon alerted and include in MISLE Reporting.

    • Advise vessel that EPIRB and bracket require servicing and battery replacement.

    • Relay to tasking authority as required.

L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS


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Operator Induced False Alerts to 20%

  • 10% were Testing without following manufactures instructions, or other deliberate non-emergency activations

  • 6% were EPIRBs deliberately taken out of bracket and naked of any control of the wet sensor.

L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS


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EPIRB False Alerts to 20%

69% Caused by Failure of “The bracket decoupling function” to control the EPIRB

  • Observed with Category I and II

  • Manufactures, makes and models in the US registration data base were proportionally represented by False Alerts

L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS


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Why didn’t I get a 406 Det to 20%orHow Long do False Alerts Last?

L.T.Yarbrough/D7 CFVS


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Questions? to 20%

(305) 415 6868

Larry.T.Yarbrough@uscg.mil