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Rebuilding the Nation. 16.1. Warm up. What were the postwar challenges that faced the nation after the Civil War?. Answer. -physical destruction -wounded/killed soldiers -financial ruin -freedmen. One of the last photographs of Lincoln, likely taken between February and April 1865.

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warm up
Warm up

What were the postwar challenges that faced the nation after the Civil War?


-physical destruction

-wounded/killed soldiers

-financial ruin



One of the last photographs of Lincoln, likely taken between February and April 1865

Lincoln aged substantially during his time as president!


Lincoln’s Plan:10% Plan “Charity for All” – 1863

"With malice toward none, with charity for all" Lincoln


Lincoln’s Plan

□ Amnesty – forgiveness to the Southern people

□ 10% Pledge – pledge loyalty to the U.S. – form new govt. (except CSA leaders)

□ Whites must agree blacks are free in the south



Many Republicans in Congress believed that Lincoln’s plan was too “soft”.

They created their own plan led by Thaddeus Stevens.




(Much tougher than Lincoln’s plan)

  • 50% pledge loyalty to the Union
  • Only non-veterans could vote at state constitutional conventions (rebel govt. was also denied)
  • - New state constitutions had to abolish slavery
additional changes
Additional Changes…
  • The Freedmen’s Bureau was created to help newly freed African Americans make the transition to freedom.
    • Part of the U.S. army
    • Distributed food, clothing and provided medical services to African Americans
    • Improved educational opportunities
    • Helped African Americans buy land

Five Days after the surrender at Appomattox, Abraham Lincoln was assassinated at Ford’s Theatre in Washington, D.C. (April 14, 1865)


Lincoln’s Assassination

April 14, 1865

Ford’s Theatre shortly after the assassination of Lincoln.


Lincoln’s Assassination

John Wilkes Booth shot Lincoln while he watched the play (in the balcony)


Booth yelled “Sic Simper Tyrannous” or “The South is avenged” depending on who was asked.


Lincoln was carried across the street to William Petersen’s boarding house. Several doctors who had been in the audience rushed to the president's side. The bullet had entered behind his left ear and was lodged behind his right eye. The situation appeared grim. Lincoln died at 7:22 am on April 15, 1865.


Lincoln’s Assassination

The attack on the president wasn’t the only attack that night. Booth’s plan also included attacks by two other accomplices. George Atzerodt to kill VP Johnson and Lewis Paine to kill Sec. of State Seward.


Lincoln’s Assassination

John Wilkes Booth,

an actor and Southern sympathizer was the mastermind behind the assassination plan.


Lincoln’s Assassination

Four people were

executed and

four imprisoned

for life for


to assassination.


Two weeks after the assassination, Booth was chased to a farmhouse where he was shot by federal police on April 26, 1865. His final words were “Useless, Useless.”

JWB’s autopsy


Lincoln’s Assassination

First President


Four presidents have been

killed in office:

Abraham Lincoln

James A. Garfield

William McKinley

John F. Kennedy


Lincoln’s Assassination


Lincoln’s body was put on display at 12 different

funerals from D.C. to Springfield. Thousands paid their respects to the fallen leader.


The New York Procession took four hours. People scalped tickets for four dollars and up. A young Teddy Roosevelt would watch from window along the route.


The impact the assassination had on our nation was:

-It left us without a leader to direct the plans for the Reconstruction

- It opened a bigger wound in the healing process between the North and the South

warm up1
Warm up

Describe Lincoln’s assassination.


Lincoln was shot on April 14, 1865 at Ford’s Theatre by John Wilkes Booth. He was then carried across the street to William Petersen’s boarding house. He died at 7:22 am on April 15, 1865.

a new president
A New President
  • V.P. Andrew Johnson became president (after Lincoln’s assasination)
  • Johnson was the only southern senator that remained loyal to the Union during the Civil War

- Andrew Johnson’s Plan

  • - Restoration – 1865 -
    • Most gain amnesty through loyalty oath
    • Officials and wealthy landowners needed a presidential pardon. This was Johnson’s way of attacking those he believed tricked the South into the war.

- Andrew Johnson’s Plan

-Appointed governors to southern states to hold elections for state constitutional conventions. (Only loyal could vote)

-He did NOT want to grant freed African Americans equal rights (state choice.)

-Finally to reenter, denounce secession, abolish slavery and ratify the 13th Amendment.


Lincoln’s Plan –

"With malice toward none, with “charity for all" Lincoln

Radical Republicans

(Wade-Davis Bill) demanded a more aggressive prosecution of the war, the faster end to slavery and defeat of the Confederacy.

At first, Andrew Johnson talked harshly, but then he struck another note: "I say, as to the leaders, punishment. I also say leniency,reconciliation and amnesty to the thousands whom they have misled and deceived."


Black Codes – Rules set up by former slave states to regulate the freedoms of former slaves creating a form of quasi-slavery to evade the results of the war. This allowed whites to exploit newly freed African Americans.

african americans in government
African Americans in Government
  • During Reconstruction Republicans dominated the South. (A-A, White Northerners who had relocated and white Southerners who favored Rep. policies)
  • 16 A-A’s served in the House and 2 as Senators (1869-1880)
  • Hiram Revels-Civil War activist for the Union, served for the state of Miss. in the U.S. Senate
  • Blanche K. Bruce-runaway slave who had est. a school for African Americans, also served in the Senate for Miss.
scalawags and carpetbaggers
Scalawags and Carpetbaggers
  • Scalawags-a term used by Confederates to describe Southern whites who supported Republican policies.
  • Carpetbaggers-Northerners who moved South during Reconstruction. (They arrived with all of their belongings in a bag made of carpet.) Some just wanted to move South, others wanted to help reform the South.

The Ku Klux Klan – used violence to scare African Americans from voting and stop them from exercising their rights as American citizens.


Major Changes under The Radical Republicans

  • Extended the Freedmen's Bureau (Passed over Johnson's veto) This organization was extended and given more power to protect African Americans. It provided food, clothing, shelter, and education to freedmen.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1866 (Passed over Johnson's veto) Designed to grant freedmen full legal equality, undercutting the Black Codes
  • - Reconstruction Act of 1867 (Passed over Johnson's veto)
  • Divided the South into 5 districts and placed them under military rule (disbanded governments readmitted under Lincoln/Johnson plans) Required southern states to ratify the 14th Amendment and submit new state Constitutions to Congress.

President Johnson and Congress did not get along.


Freedman’s Bureau:

Congress YES!

Johnson NO!

Civil Rights Bill: (defines citizenship)

Congress YES!

Johnson NO!

14th Amendment:

Congress YES!

Johnson NO!


The Radical Republicans became frustrated with Johnson and his abuse of power. They created the Tenure of Office Act, which prevented Johnson from removing government officials without the Senate’s approval, including his own cabinet members. Johnson removed Secretary of War Edwin Stanton and was soon after impeached (for misconduct.) He was not, however, removed from the presidency.

What does impeach mean?

election of 1868
Election of 1868
  • By the election most southern states had rejoined the Union.
  • The Republicans chose General Ulysses S. Grant, the Civil War hero as their presidential candidate.
  • Grant won the election and received most of the 500,000 African American votes in the South.
changes to the constitution during the civil war and reconstruction
Changes to the Constitution(During the Civil War and Reconstruction)

The 13th, 14th and 15th Amendments were all added to the United States Constitution during this period.


After gaining freedom, many African Americans were unsure of where to go or what to do. Although many blacks had taken possession of the abandoned lands, including land that had been given to them. Blacks, consequently, were forced to give back the land or remain on the land after signing a labor contract that imposed conditions much like slavery.


The amendment provides a broad definition of citizenship, overruling Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857) which had excluded slaves and their descendants from possessing Constitutional rights.


15th Amendment – Allowed African American males to vote.

Pictures: The original copy of the amendment and a drawing depicted of the first African American votes

warm up2
Warm up

What was the purpose of the freedman’s bureau?


The Freedmen’s Bureau was created to help newly freed African Americans make the transition to freedom.

-Part of the U.S. army

-Distributed food, clothing and provided medical services to African Americans

-Improved educational opportunities

-Helped African Americans buy land

warm up3
Warm up

Explain the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments.


13th-Slavery is outlawed in the U.S

14th-All people born in the U.S. are citizens. All citizens are guaranteed equal protection under the law.

15th-The right to vote cannot be denied because of race.

reconstruction s conclusion
Reconstruction’s Conclusion
  • Northerners started to become frustrated with Reconstruction…it was time for the South to solve their own problems.
  • For a short time, corruption rang in President Grant’s administration…he won reelection anyway. (Against newspaper editor, Horace Greeley a Liberal Republican.)

This is an 1868 presidential campaign poster for Grant. It was created by superimposing a portrait of Grant onto the platform of the Republican Party.

amnesty act
Amnesty Act
  • This act resorted full rights to those members of the Confederacy who hadn’t yet gained them back.
  • Because of this act …Democrats soon started to regain control of state governments.
  • By 1876 the Republicans only controlled 3 states…and the Democrats threatened many African Americans so they didn’t vote.
election of 1876
Election of 1876
  • Rutherford B. Hayes-of Ohio (Rep.) vs. Samuel Tilden (Dem.)
  • Because the results were so close a special commission (15 members) had to be created to determine the winner. In the end Hayes was declared the winner.


african americans lose rights
African Americans Lose Rights

Voting Restrictions

  • As the 1800’s came to a close, racism became firmly entrenched into American society.
  • Although the 15th amendment granted African American males the right to vote many Southern states found ways around it.
      • Poll tax-
      • Literacy test-
      • Grandfather clause-
jim crow laws
Jim Crow Laws
  • Using the old Black Codes Southern states worked hard to segregate, or separate the races.
  • Jim Crow Laws allowed separate facilities for whites and blacks. The facilities were supposed to be separate and equal, but they were far from EQUAL.
  • White facilities were far superior to African American facilities.

Jim Crow-Way of Life


Jim Crow Laws were named after the minstrel show character.

This character was considered an offensive and rude representation of African Americans.


JIM CROW LAWS ….set up rules of separate but equal all over America including this shop in Lancaster, Ohio in 1938.

plessy v ferguson
Plessy v. Ferguson
  • 1896 Supreme Court case. Homer Plessy sued when he was kicked off of a white train. He was of mixed background. The Supreme Court allowed Jim Crow Laws by ruling against Plessy.
  • This case was upheld until 1954 Brown v. Board of Education.
  • This meant it was fine by the Constitution to separate white and blacks in society. (Until 1954)
industrial growth
Industrial Growth
  • Some Southerners decide that if the South was ever going to be able to stand on its own two feet it would have to industrialize. (Focus on natural resources)
  • Important products were-textiles, lumber, tobacco, iron and steel
  • The South had an abundant workforce and newly improved railroad system.
reconstruction s impact
Reconstruction’s Impact
  • Reconstruction was a success and a failure.
  • It helped the South rebuild after the war but the economy of the South remained rural and poor for many years to come.
  • Initially, African Americans gained many new rights (specifically in government), but with the implementation of Jim Crow Laws things soon returned to a slavery-like atmosphere.
warm up4
Warm Up

What was the impact of the Reconstruction?

  • Reconstruction was a success and a failure.
  • It helped the South rebuild after the war but the economy of the South remained rural and poor for many years to come.
  • Initially, African Americans gained many new rights (specifically in government), but with the implementation of Jim Crow Laws things soon returned to a slavery-like atmosphere.