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Chapter 10 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 10

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  1. Chapter 10 States of matter

  2. Kinetic Molecular Theory • Particles of matter are in constant motion

  3. The state of a substance at room temperature depends on the strength of the intermolecular forces between the particles.

  4. 5 assumptions of Kinetic Theory • 1. gases are tiny particles • 2. particles have elastic collisions with each other • 3. particles in constant motion • 4.no forces between particles • 5. speed of particles determined by temperature

  5. Bonding (Intramolecular) ionic bond- transfer of electrons between cation (+) and anion(-) Subtract electronegativities to predict bond type

  6. Covalent bond- sharing of electrons • Nonpolar- equal sharing of electrons • Polar –unequal sharing of electrons

  7. Polar molecule has a slightly + and – side due to the difference in electronegativities of the elements involved.

  8. Intermolecular forces • Occur between 2 molecules (polar covalent) • 3 major types: 1.dispersion • 2. dipole to dipole 3. hydrogen bond

  9. Dispersion force- temporary and weak strong polar molecule causes a nonpolar molecule to become slightly polar

  10. Dipole to Dipole • slightly + end of one molecule is attracted to the slightly – end of another molecule • Shape can cancel out polarity

  11. Hydrogen bond- attraction between molecules • Uses H,F, O, N. (generally the strongest attraction)

  12. Fluidity, expansion, diffusion occur due to the weak or none attraction between molecules • Which states of matter have these properties?

  13. Diffusion Rates • Which diffuses faster? • High molar mass or low molar mass? • Polar or nonpolar molecules? • High IMF or low IMF?

  14. Ideal gases have NO attraction between molecules • Real gases have some attraction between molecules

  15. A change of state occurs when IMF are formed or broken • Increase in heat? • Decrease in heat?

  16. Changing gases into liquids • Increase pressure • Decrease temperature • This causes increase in IMF

  17. Liquids Viscosity- resistance of a liquid to flow examples: IMF high or low? generally polar or nonpolar? Effect of heat?

  18. Surface tension- causes surface area to decrease in size- due to IMF • IMF high or low? • Effect of heat? Polar or nonpolar liquids?

  19. Capillary action- movement of water in a tube • -due to attraction between tube and liquid • Adhesion is greater than cohesion

  20. Cohesion- attraction between the particles • Adhesion- attraction of the particles to the outside surface

  21. Mensicus forms because the adhesion is greater than the cohesion

  22. Water beads on the car • Which is greater adhesion or cohesion?

  23. Evaporation-rate depends on IMF between molecules and the KE of the molecules High evaporation rate- low IMF or high IMF? High Evaporation Rate- high or low KE? Increase in tempwhat?

  24. Volatile – evaporates easily • IMF strong or weak? • Nonvolatile– does not evaporate easily • IMF strong or weak?

  25. Importance of perspiration? When water evaporates from a solution, does the solution become more or less concentrated?

  26. expansion • What type of IMF (low or high) allows for the most expansion?

  27. Slow diffusion • Low or high IMF? • Increase in Temperature causes the diffusion rate to increase or decrease?

  28. solidification • Liquids tend to solidify when the temperature decreases. Why?

  29. Polar liquids (review) • Have: strong IMF • high viscosity • high boiling point • low rate of evaporation • high surface tension • low expansion

  30. Exothermic- releases heat • Endothermic- requires heat

  31. Process endo/exo Imf example • Melting- • Freezing • Condensation • Vaporization • Sublimation • Deposition

  32. Heat diagram---label parts of graph

  33. Boiling point of a liquid is when the vapor pressure is equal to the atmospheric pressure. An increase in the atmospheric pressure increases the boiling point.

  34. Why does the plateau occur?

  35. examples • Pressure Cookers- • Lid increases pressure inc. Boiling point • Decreases cooking time

  36. examples • Cooking on Pikes Peak • Decrease atm press decreases BP increases cooking time

  37. Phase Diagram • Triple point- the temperature and pressure required for all 3 states can co-exist in equilibrium

  38. water

  39. Carbon dioxide

  40. Molar Heat of Fusion • Heat needed to melt one mole of a solid at its melting point

  41. Molar Heat of Vaporization • Amount of heat needed to vaporize one mole of a liquid at its boiling point

  42. Name the state of matter Definite shape, definite volume No definite shape or volume Definite volume, no definite shape