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Chapter One A. chemistry - study of matter and the changes that matter undergoes -looks at behavior of atoms and molecules matter - anything that has mass and takes up space atoms - submicroscopic particles that are the building blocks of matter

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chapter one a
Chapter One A

chemistry- study of matter and the changes that matter undergoes

-looks at behavior of atoms and molecules

matter- anything that has mass and takes up space

atoms- submicroscopic particles that are the building blocks of matter

molecules- two or more atoms joined together

-the properties of substances depend on atoms and molecules that compose them

example- H2O and H2O2

Branches of Chemistry

1) physical

-studies the behavior of substances

ex- how plastics work

  • analytical

-studies the composition of substances

ex- blood tests

3) organic

-studies substances containing carbon

ex- sugars


-studies substances not containing carbon

ex- salts, some acids

  • biochemistry

-studies chemical processes in living organisms

ex- digestive, respiratory, circulatory systems

pure chem- studies chemistry just for the sake of knowledge alone

applied chem- takes that knowledge to attain a specific goal

What makes science different from other subjects?

scientific method- systematic approach to problem solving

-acquiring knowledge about natural world

Steps of the Scientific Method

  • Propose Problem/ Ask a Question

-usually begins with an observation

Gather Info

-I-net, books, radio, interviews, newspapers, magazines, TV, videos

  • Form a Hypothesis

-an educated guess, tentative explanation

  • Test Hypothesis Through Experimenting

-experiment should be designed around hypothesis

-for results to be accepted, the experiment must produce the same results over and over again


control- does not change

variable- what is being changed

- only one variable can be tested at a time

independent/manipulated variable- what is changed on purpose

dependent/responding variable- what happens in response to the manipulated variable being changed

Analyze Results

-observations and data should be colleted during experiment

-organize data into tables, graphs, charts

  • Accept/Refute Hypothesis

-based on hypothesis and results

  • Repeat

scientific law- brief statement that summarizes past observations and predicts future ones

-laws define how nature behaves

-we generally accept laws as true without question

example- law of conservation of mass

-states that matter can neither be created nor destroyed

-laws can often times be equations

theory- time tested idea that is widely accepted by the scientific community

-theories will explain, laws will not

example- Dalton’s Atomic Theory

-states that all matter is composed of small indestructible particles called atoms

States of Matter

solids- have definite shape and volume

-atoms or molecules are tightly packed in fixed locations

-atoms/molecules vibrate, but do not move or slide past one another

Can be:

crystalline- arranged in patterns with repeating order (salt, diamonds)

amorphous- no order or repeating pattern

(charcoal, plastic)

liquids- have definite volume, but no definite shape, take on the shape of their container

-atoms/molecules are free to move

gases- take both the shape and volume of their container

-atoms/molecules have plenty of space between them and are free to move

-this makes gases compressible

Classifying Matter

substances- composed of only a single type of atom or molecule

-chemical formulas or chemical symbols can be written from substances

Substances can be:

elements- substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances

-all found on the periodic table

compounds- two or more elements chemically combined

-ex- NaCℓ or H2SO4

mixtures- composed of two or more different types of matter combined physically in variable proportions

Types of mixtures

heterogeneous- particles can be picked apart and separated

ex- chicken soup, salad

homogeneous- uniform composition, the same throughout, particles cannot be separated physically

ex- Kool-Aid, iced tea

Separating Mixtures

decanting- pouring off the water

filtering- use filter paper, separate solid and liquid (page 10 figure 1.6)

distillation- heat to boil off liquid, then recondense liquid and collect in a separate flask (page 10 figure 1.5)

Physical changes- alter only appearance, but not composition

-usually reversible

ex- boiling water, carving wood

Physical property- property that a substance displays without changing its composition

ex- melting and boiling point, color, odor

Chemical changes- alter the composition of matter, transform into different substances

-usually irreversible

ex- iron rusting, wood burning

Chemical property- property that a substance displays only by changing its composition by ways of a chemical change