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Importance of Establishing Effective Database System. Laila M. Akhu-Zaheya RN, PHD Nursing Informatics Adult Health Department Faculty of Nursing/Jordan University of Science and Technology. Objectives. What is data? What is information? What is database? What is effective database?

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Importance of establishing effective database system

Importance of Establishing Effective Database System

Laila M. Akhu-Zaheya RN, PHD

Nursing Informatics

Adult Health Department

Faculty of Nursing/Jordan University of Science and Technology


  • What is data?

  • What is information?

  • What is database?

  • What is effective database?

  • What are the purposes of database?

  • Implication of database in nursing


  • Do certain approaches to pain management shorten hospital stays?

  • Is the incidence of preventable illness lower in children whose mothers received postpartum care?

  • Does hospitalization of patients whose diabetes is newly diagnosed prevent future hospitalization for diabetic complications?

What is data
What is data?

Data can be defined in different ways, depending on the context.

  • In information science data defined as raw facts, or unprocessed information

  • Need to be stored for easy retrieval

What is information
What is information?

  • Information is the processed data, has meaning

  • Should be organized in a useful and meaningful way to build our knowledge

  • knowledge would be useful to make decision

What is database
What is Database

  • Data is the basic element of database

  • A very large integrated collection of data

  • Organized in a form that data would be retrievable either singly or in groups

  • It is simply creating information from data

  • Information is data that have been organized & communicated in a coherent and meaningful manner

Example of database
Example of database

Touch all aspects of our lives; as:

  • Banking: all transactions

  • Airlines: reservations, schedules

  • Manufacturing: production, inventory, orders, supply

  • Universities: registration, grades

  • Computer: files in your hard drive

  • Human resources: employee records, salaries, tax deductions

What is effective database
What is effective database

When you think about a database, keep in mind the

  • The questions that the data needs to answer

  • The data needed to answer the questions

  • Remember: garbage in (GI)– garbage out (GO)

Database management system
Database management system

Keep in mind the following questions:

  • How many records we will warehouse and for how long?

  • Who will be using the database and what tasks will they perform?

  • Who will be providing IT support for the database?

  • What hardware is available?  Is there a budget for purchasing additional hardware?

Database management system continue
Database management system, continue,….

  • Who will be responsible for maintaining the data?

  • Will data access be offered over the Internet?  If so, what level of access should be supported?

  • How often will the data be modified?  Who will make these modifications?

Why do we need database
Why do we need database?

  • Database is the foundation of all health care information system

  • Provides information that can be retrieve, used in research, and clinical practice

  • Keep records of our:

    • Clients; Staff; Volunteers

    • Activities and interventions;

  • Develop reports; Perform research

  • Longitudinal tracking


  • It would overcome the problems of:

    • Data redundancy and inconsistency

      • Multiple file formats, duplication of information in different files

    • Difficulty in accessing data

      • Need to write a new program to carry out each new task

    • Data isolation — multiple files and formats

    • Integrity problems

      • Hard to add new constraints or change existing ones

Overview of database
Overview of database

  • Certain terminology used for database

    • Data: Facts without meaning, e.g., the number 37

    • Field (attribute): smallest structure in database

    • Field name: label applied to a field

    • Record: all information about a single member of a table

    • Table: A collection of related information . A table consists of record and each record is made up of a number of field.

Type of database
Type of Database

  • Non-relational

    Place information in field categories that we create so that information is available for sorting and disseminating the way we need it. Example: a spreadsheet

  • Relational

    Fields can be used in a number of ways (and can be of variable length), provided that they are linked in tables.


  • It is not only important to develop database but also to know how to use the database:

  • Training is important

Implications challenges
Implications & challenges

  • Direct patient care

  • Education

  • Research

  • Administration