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Introduction to Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) MATSE 305 - November 23, 1998. Center for Microanalysis of Materials Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. What is Auger?.

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introduction to auger electron spectroscopy aes matse 305 november 23 1998

Introduction to Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES)MATSE 305 - November 23, 1998

Center for Microanalysis of Materials

Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

what is auger
What is Auger?

Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) is a widely used technique to investigate the chemical composition of surfaces.

the auger process
The Auger Process

STEP 3

KLL Auger electron

emitted to conserve

energy released in

step 2

STEP 1

Ejected electron

FREE

ELECTRON

LEVEL

CONDUCTION BAND

FERMI

LEVEL

Auger Transition Named:

KLL

VALENCE BAND

STEP 3

(alternative)

an x-ray is emitted

to conserve energy

released in step 2

E(Auger)=E(K)-E(L2)-E(L3)

E(X-ray)=E(K)-E(L2)

L3

2p

L2

2s

L1

STEP 2

L electron falls

to fill vacancy

Incident

Electron

1s

K

auger energy scale
Auger Energy Scale
  • The AES instrument measures the kinetic energy of all collected electrons.
auger stats
Auger Stats
  • Primary Beam = 3 - 20 KeV electrons
  • Detection Sensitivity = ~1 atomic %
  • Sampling Distance (depth) = 2 to 4 nm
  • Analysis Diameter = 80nm to several mm
  • Elements Detectable = Li and above
auger data formats
Auger Data Formats

Raw Data

Differentiated Data

peak height quantitation
Peak Height / Quantitation

For quantitation the derivative

form of the data is used.

Sensitivity Factors are used

to adjust the peak heights of

all elements present in the

sample.

The composition is normalized

to 100% to determine the amount

of each element.

additional capabilities of auger
Additional Capabilities of Auger
  • Identify surface contaminants and composition.
  • Study composition as a function of depth.
  • Analyze sample features as small as 80nm. Using an electron gun for the primary beam allows small analysis spot sizes.
why uhv for surface analysis
Why UHV for Surface Analysis?

Pressure

Torr

Degree of Vacuum

  • Remove adsorbed gases from the sample.
  • Eliminate adsorption of contaminants on the sample.
  • Prevent arcing and high voltage breakdown.
  • Increase the mean free path for electrons, ions and photons.

2

10

Low Vacuum

-1

10

Medium Vacuum

-4

10

High Vacuum

-8

10

Ultra-High Vacuum

-11

10

aes instrument configuration
AES Instrument Configuration
  • Elements of Typical Auger System:
  • Electron Gun
  • Analyzer
  • Secondary Electron Detector
  • Ion Gun
  • Sample Stage
  • Introduction System
significance of primary beam
Significance of Primary Beam

The Electron Beam is functioning

both as the imaging beam and the

primary beam for analysis. This means

that the area of interest on the sample

can be directly aligned for analysis.

mrl instrumentation
MRL Instrumentation

PHI Model 660 Scanning Auger Microprobe