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Development Policy and Management

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  1. Development Policy and Management PIA 2501 Week Seven

  2. Reminder: Development Themes • Development Theory • Development Planning and Management • Governance, Local Government and Civil Society • Human Resource Development • Donors and Development

  3. The Shift in Development Priorities Three Post-September 11 Issues: • Governance • NGOs and Civil Society • Human Resource Development

  4. Theme Three Governance, Local Government and Civil Society

  5. Development Themes-Authors I. Planning vs. Implementation- The Limits of Governance • Jeffery Pressman • Naomi Caiden • Aaron Wildavsky

  6. Development Themes II. Gender and Development- A Democracy issue • Isabel Allende • Sue Ellen Charlton • Kathleen Staudt

  7. Governance Themes III. Cultural Issues: Clash of Civilizations and Chaos Theories • V.S. Naipaul • Samuel Huntington • Monte Palmer • Jorge Luis Borges

  8. JORGE LUIS BORGES

  9. Governance

  10. Governance: Focus onLocal Administration and Development Myths of the Grass Roots

  11. Governance and Sovereignty "[T]ransformation (and globalization) has led to a reinvention of government and what it does“ - Anonymous

  12. Reinventing Government?

  13. Governance: an Overview of Issues • Focus of International Development: Post-2001: “Democracy and Governance” Human Rights (First Generation-Political) But not second (social) or third (economic)

  14. Terms Basic Terms: 1. The Environment of Development 2. Governance-Manner in which the state is created, modified or overthrown 3. Rule of Law

  15. Governance and theState 4. Sovereignty • Authority to Govern (Ostrom) 5. Presumption of “Independence” • A National Government status given by International Community and by use of International Law "States will necessarily remain central actors in development policy and development management." Milton Esman

  16. Governance Issues- Continued 7. Local Government • Primary unit of government that has both political leadership and bureaucratic structures

  17. What Local Government Does

  18. Governance Issues 8. Civil Society Associations and organizations that are beyond the clan and the family and short of the state (does not include state organs)

  19. Civil Society Definition: • Networks of organizations, groups and individuals pursuing socio-economic interests "Beyond the family but short of the state” - Hegal "Human Rights, Basic Needs and the Stuff of Citizenship” - First vs. Second and Third generation

  20. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

  21. 9. Democracy Two Views

  22. Democracy: What is it? "It is only when men learn what it means to be free, and struggle to maintain proper limits upon the exercise of authority so that no one is allowed to become master of the others that human beings have the possibility of creating mutual relationships which they may freely enter and leave as they seek mutually productive patterns of human development." - Vincent Ostrom

  23. Vincent Ostrom, Tej Kumari Mahat and Elinor Ostrom

  24. Democracy: What is it? “The policy makers have rational interests--to develop their countries, to improve the condition of their people, to acquire or stay in power, or to steal as much as possible.” Peter Berger, Pyramids of Sacrifice

  25. Peter L. Berger Central to Peter Berger's work is the relationship between society and the individual

  26. Types of Democracy: Terms • Direct Democracy • Actual direct participation of a population in decision-making about laws and regulations • Town hall or village model • Indirect Democracy • Some form of representative democracy • Pluralism • Existence of various diverse interest associations, individuals and groups within society (Focus on Tolerance)

  27. New England Town Hall

  28. Types of Democracy, cont. • Polyarchy • Diverse interest associations of society compete with each other over policy issues (Structured Pluralism) • Cooperative Movements (or Corporatism) • Diverse interest associations cooperate with each other and with organs of the state to make policy

  29. Robert Dahland Polyarchy

  30. James Madison and Democracy: The Warning • The problem with majorities • Tyranny • Factions

  31. Direct Democracy vs. Representative Democracy • Problem with Populism • Mob Justice • Minority rights • Shifting majorities • Problem with Plebiscites • Size and the Need for Indirect Representation

  32. Governance and Sovereignty • Rules of the Game politics: • Zero/sum vs. sum/sum politics • "Splintering” • Break up of states--centrifugal forces • Interest Group Liberalism: The goal? • Civil Society as organizational • Not the individual or the mass

  33. The Nature of Conflict

  34. Governance and Sovereignty • The need for apathy? • Constitutional vs. Social stability • Institutional structures: • Checks and balances • The Institutional State • What is the "Institutional State?” Why is it important?

  35. Ten Minute Break

  36. Decentralized Governance • Subsidiarity- higher units of Government should not do what can be done by lower units

  37. The Principle

  38. What Local Government Does: Redeux • Services: local roads, sanitation, water, basic health, primary education • Depend Upon: Skilled Personnel • Fiscal/budget allocation • Taxes and transfers • Planning • Strategic priorities • Managing • Implementing

  39. Local Government and theLocal State • Local State vs. Local Government • Functional vs. Territorial Control • Devolution • Urban vs. Rural • Urban linked with Rural

  40. Weak Weak Strong Strong State-mezzo Weak Strong State Societal Linkages Central State - Macro SOFT STATE…………………………….PREDATORY STATE Mono-State…...INTERGOVERNMENTAL Systems in place.…..Local State Civil Society - Micro Local - SOFT STATE….………………LOCAL GOVERNMENT

  41. Local Government and Development: The Goal Bottom Up Participation Planning vs. politics: myths of participation

  42. The Goal Learning Process Model--“incrementalism“- theoretical alternatie • Bottom up and interactive • Village development committees vs. local planning officers • Paternalism of the district officer vs. patronage of local level minor networks • Street level bureaucrats vs. agents from center

  43. The Primary Unit of Government • Municipality: Lowest level with Bureaucrats • English/American • Town vs. county (Rural vs. Urban) • Continental European • Commune (no distinction between rural and urban)