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The Road to War. 1933-1940. The Development of Totalitarianism. Kellog-Briand Pact-never make war again and to settle all disputes by peaceful means (1929)-still permitted a defensive war worked in a world that wanted peace-3 countries do not-Japan, Germany, Italy

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the development of totalitarianism
The Development of Totalitarianism
  • Kellog-Briand Pact-never make war again and to settle all disputes by peaceful means (1929)-still permitted a defensive war
  • worked in a world that wanted peace-3 countries do not-Japan, Germany, Italy
  • Japan-attacks Manchuria-September 1931
  • Stimson Doctrine-US would not recognize any gains made by force
  • Japan ignores and sets up a puppet state
  • The League of Nations criticizes-Japan quits the League
  • Japan begins to build its Navy
  • <Henry L. Stimson
the development of totalitarianism1
The Development of Totalitarianism
  • Fascism develops in Europe
  • 1. <Adolf Hitler-der Fuhrer- in Germany (1933)
  • 2. Benito Mussolini in Italy (1922)
  • 3. Francisco Franco in Spain (1939)
  • Totalitarianism-dictatorships with complete control over the people of a Nation
  • Fascism-state more important than the individual and a nation should have a strong central government headed by a dictator
  • Nazi Party-Hitler’s Party in Germany-Nationalist Socialist German Worker’s Party
the aggressions begin
The Aggressions Begin
  • Italy attacks Ethiopia (1934)-Mussolini wants to regain the Roman Empire
  • by 1936-Ethiopia is annexed
  • League of Nations does not act-made Italy the aggressor, applied sanctions, arms embargo, boycott
  • League is useless for preventing war
  • <Benito Musslini-il Duce
the aggression begins
The Aggression Begins
  • Hitler Arms the Rhineland (1935)
  • 1936-sends troops in
  • if Britain and France moved troops in-Hitler would have probably backed down
  • no action taken
  • <Map of Germany 1939
  • Slide presentation of Hitler’s Aggression to simulate Foreign Policy advisors
america stays neutral
America stays Neutral
  • US recognizes the USSR-1933-used to try to check Japanese in Asia
  • Reciprocal Trade Agreements (1934)-President has the power to lower tariffs by 50%-Secretary of State-Cordell Hull-signed more than 20 of these
  • Good Neighbor Policy-continued the policy of Coolidge and Hoover
  • <Secretary of State Cordell Hull
  • Nye Committee-Gerald Nye-Senator from North Dakota
  • 1934-investigated the reasons the United States entered World War I
  • findings-certain American Corporations, particularly those in banking and munitions, made a lot of money off WWI
  • ???Corporations urged Wilson for war to profit
  • “merchants of death” to a lot of corporation
  • Gerald Nye
neutrality acts
Neutrality Acts
  • First in 1935-once President declared a country at war, the United States could not ship or sell arms to them
  • Second in 1936-prohibits extending loans and credit as well
  • Third in 1937-extended to those in Civil War (Spanish Civil War)-1st and 2nd permanent
  • goods other than weapons on <“cash and carry” basis
spanish civil war
Spanish Civil War
  • Army uprising against the Republican Government
  • Francisco Franco as a fascist leader backed by Hitler and Mussolini
  • vs. The Republican Government backed by the Soviets-US could not give full support because they looked Communist
  • US-Abraham Lincoln Brigade-3000 volunteers on Republican side
  • Hitler and Mussolini cement friendship for the Rome-Berlin Axis alliance
  • "Our regime is based on bayonets and blood, not on hypocritical elections."Francisco Franco
isolationism challenged
Isolationism challenged
  • “China Incident”-July 1937-China and Japan clash near Beijing-Japan took most of coast
  • US in favor of China-Japan called it an incident-Neutrality Act not invoked-
  • continue sending supplies, helped China to arm- built the Burma Road-700 miles long supply highway
  • Map of China Incident-Japan aggression
isolationism challenged1
Isolationism Challenged
  • <Quarantine Speech-October 5, 1937
  • expressed fears of the international situation and behavior of Germany, Italy, Japan
  • wanted to isolate the aggressors with other Democracies in the world
  • most disagree with this position-not neutral anymore
isolationism challenged2
Isolationism Challenged
  • <Panay Incident-December 12, 1937
  • Yangtze River-gunboat, and 3 oil tankers escorting-attacked without warning-2 servicemen killed-
  • legal right to be there-Japan apologized at once-pay and punish those responsible
  • US accepts-poll stated, one month after, 70% felt better to leave China than fight the Japanese
the crisis deepens
The Crisis Deepens
  • Hitler takes Austria in 1938- “Anchluss”- without opposition
  • Hitler threatens Czechoslovakia -excuse-3m Germans lived in the Sudetenland
  • Czechs refuse to give in-Soviet Union and French alliances
  • Hitler ultimatum-surrender or fight
  • Hitler agrees to a conference to be held in Munich-includes: <Hitler, Prime Minister-Neville Chamberlain (England), Premier Edward Daladier
  • dismember Czechoslovakia-Sudetenland to Germany, Poland and Hungary took some
  • postponed the war-APPEASEMENT
  • Neville Chamberlain Speech
hitler begins the final solution
Hitler begins the Final Solution
  • Persecution of the Jews-
  • 1933-national economic boycott
  • forbidden to enter or remain in the medical field, legal profession, or obtain business licenses
  • All Jewish teachers and civil service employees were fired
  • The Nuremberg Laws-1935-took away political rights and citizenship
  • expelled from German Schools and denied Medical care
  • segregated on trains and other transportation
  • <Nazi Book Burning of Jewish and Communist Authors in 1933
the beginning of the final solution
The Beginning of the Final Solution
  • The Nuremberg Laws (Continued)
  • Could only shop during special hours and had to be off the street at 8 PM
  • <all Jews over the age of 6 had to wear a star of David on their chest
  • Jews and “Aryans” (non-Jews to Hitler) were prevented from marrying
  • Jews who left Germany were not allowed to take any property
  • later-Jews had to register everything they owned
the beginning of the final solution1
The Beginning of the Final Solution
  • Produced refugees-many German Jews hoped Nazis would go away
  • Great Britain agrees to accept 80,000 refugees-60,000 fled to US-little or no help from Roosevelt-already had a huge unemployment problem
  • those who did leave included-to US-<Albert Einstein, conductor Arturo Toscanini, author Thomas Mann, physicist Enrico Fermi, architect Walter Gropius
  • Albert Einstein speaking on the Holocaust
the crisis deepens1
The Crisis Deepens
  • Japan continues assault on China, Indochina, and threatened the Philippines and East Indies
  • Hitler takes the rest of Czechoslovakia in 1938
  • Hitler threatens Poland-Allies draw the line here
  • Soviet Union-<Josef Stalin distrusts Britain and France
  • feared they wanted USSR to take full impact of Hitler attack
  • August 23, 1939-signs the Non-aggression Pact with Hitler
  • Hitler no longer fears Soviets
  • demands land from Poland (refuses) -attacks Poland
world war ii begins
World War II Begins
  • On September 1, 1939- Hitler attacks Poland
  • Britain and France declared War on September 3, 1939
  • Roosevelt sided with the British but vowed to remain neutral
  • <invasion of Poland
the war in europe
The War in Europe
  • The Battle of France
  • April, 1940-Denmark and Norway are invaded
  • a month later-Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, France
  • England’s Prime Minister-<Winston Churchill and France’s Premier Paul Reynard beg Roosevelt for help
  • can’t help them
  • Battle of France strategy and battle
the war in europe1
The War in Europe
  • France surrenders-Hitler gets same car on the same spot at the same time for France to sign an armistice in as in 1918
  • Terms of Armistice-Germany gets-North of the Loire River, entire Atlantic Coast, remainder would be a “self-governed” area called Vichy France
  • World is stunned by blitzkrieg of France-only Britain stood between Hitler and the United States
the war in europe2
The War in Europe
  • The Battle of Britain
  • Air war-summer and autumn of 1940
  • 2600 bombers-August 15-1000 bombed Britain
  • every night for 2 months-bombed London
  • Radar saved Britain
  • continue throughout the winter
  • Japan joins the Axis
  • <London during the Battle
  • Winston Churchill’s Speech
america prepares for war
America Prepares for War
  • US declares economic war
  • Roosevelt is so concerned with course of war-decides to break tradition
  • Runs for a third term-Republicans nominate <Wendell Wilkie-
  • Roosevelt wins on- “Your boys are not going to be sent to any foreign war.”