Animation. What is Animation?. Animation is the rapid display of a sequence of images of 2-D or 3-D artwork or model positions in order to create an illusion of movement. It is an optical illusion of motion due to the phenomenon of persistence of vision .
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What is Animation? • Animation is the rapid display of a sequence of images • of 2-D or 3-D artwork or model positions in order to • create an illusion of movement. It is an optical illusion of • motion due to the phenomenon of persistence of vision. • The most common method of presenting animation • is as a motion picture or a video.
What is Persistence of Vision? • Persistence of vision is the phenomenon of the • eye by which an afterimage is thought to persist for • approximately one twenty-fifth of a second on • the retina. • In other words, it’s the ability • of the eye to retain the impression • of an image for a short time after • the image has disappeared.
Six Types of Animation Techniques: • 1. Stop-motion animation: • Puppet animation • Claymation • Cutout animation, etc. • 2. Traditional, hand-drawn animation • 3. Rotoscoping
Six Types of Animation Techniques: • 4. Live-action animation • 5. Anime • 6. Computer animation: • 2D (Flash) & 3D (Maya)
Stop-motion Animation • Real-world objects are physically manipulated and • photographed one frame of film at a time to create • the illusion of movement. • Invented by • Georges Melies • in the Early 20th Cent. • purely by accident. • (Ex: bus transformed • into a hearse)
Stop-motion Animation • Different kinds exist: clay & puppet animation, etc.
Stop-motion Animation Stop motionis often called frame-by-frame animation. As mentioned earlier, it’s a generic term for an animation technique that makes static objects appear to move. The object is moved very small amounts between individual frames, producing the effect of motion when the film is played back, as in conventional drawn and painted animation.
One of the Oldest Stop-Motion Films • A Trip to the Moon, Georges Melies, 1902 • Was the 1st Sci Fi Movie ever made! Incorporated theatrical sets, props and real actors.
Contemporary Stop-motion Animation • “Coraline”, 2009
Film With Elements of Stop-motion • The Science of Sleep by Michel Gondry, 2006
To find more examples: Google Video is an excellent source for finding examples of every kind of stop-motion technique. A simple “stop motion animation” search will yield immediate results, of varying quality.
Pioneers of the Animation Genre • J. Stuart Blackton (American), Early 20th Cent. • is often considered to be the 1st true animator. Perfected • stop-motion & hand-drawn animation techniques. • Humorous Phases of Funny Faces (Short Anim., 1906) • Emile Cohl (French), • Early 20th Century. • Became famous for his • short hand-drawn film • “Fantasmagorie”, 1908.
Hand-Drawn Animation Technique • Traditional animation (cel or hand-drawn) – wasused for most films animated in the 20th century. • Each frame is drawn slightly differently from the one before it.
Hand-Drawn Animation Technique • Drawings are traced or photocopied onto • transparent acetate sheets called cels. • The completed character cels are photographed one-by-one onto motion picture film.
Hand-Drawn Animation Technique • This image shows how 2 transparent cels, each with • a different character drawn on them, and an opaque • background are photographed together to form 1 image.
Examples of Traditional Animation • Hand-drawn: • Disney’s Pinocchio (1940), Akira (1988) • Animations created with the help of a computer: • The Lion King (1994), The Triplets of Bellivelle (2003)
Rotoscoping Was invented in 1917 Animators trace live-action movement, frame by frame The source film can be directly copied from actors’ outlines into animated drawings, as in The Lord of the Rings (US, 1978) or Waking Life (US, 2001). Ex: Charles Schwab commercial
Rotoscoping Patent drawing for Fleischer’s original rotoscope. The artist is drawing on a transparent easel, onto which the movie projector at the right is throwing an image of a single film frame.
Rotoscoping Examples: • “Charlie Chaplin” by Kyungwha Lee • http://www.allyourdatabasearebelongto.us/2d.php • “Waking Life” Animation • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9yJE1iiO0qI
Live-Action & Anime Live-action is a technique which combines hand-drawn characters with live action shots. Examples: Who Framed Roger Rabbit? (USA, 1988) & Osmosis Jones (USA, 2002). Anime is a technique primarily used in Japan. It usually consists of detailed characters but more of a stiff animation. Examples: Spirited Away(Japan, 2001) and Princess Mononoke.
2D & 3D Animation 2D animation figures are created and/or edited on the computer using 2D bitmap graphics or created and edited using 2D vector graphics. Techniques include tweening, morphing, etc. Digital 3D models are manipulated by an animator. Various techniques can be applied to objects, such as mathematical functions (ex. gravity, particle simulations). Ex:Toy Story, Shrek.
Suggested Links: Automatic Writing by William Kentridge Mark Romanek (Contemporary Film Maker)