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  1. SSB BART GroupAccessibility Concepts

  2. Training Overview

  3. Training Overview • Objective • This training provides an overview of accessibility relevant to Electronic and Information Technology (EIT) • Goals • Provide a general overview of users with disabilities • Define assistive technology • List several user requirements for individuals with disabilities • Provide an overview of applicable laws • Define accessibility • Describe assistive technologies used by people who are blind or visually impaired

  4. Training Outline • Disability Types • Laws and Regulations • Assistive Technologies • Screen Readers • Screen Magnifiers • AMP

  5. Disability Types

  6. Disability Types Section Objectives | Knowledge Requirements • Section Objectives • Understand the various different types of disabilities • Knowledge Requirements • General understanding of disability types • Understanding of challenges different disability types face with EIT systems

  7. Disability Types Overview • Overview • Accessibility applies to access of information by people with many different types of disabilities • Common disability types include • Visual • Blindness • Low Vision • Auditory/Hearing • Mobility • Speech • Cognitive

  8. Blindness • Definition • Individuals that are blind lack the ability to see • Example Challenges • Telecommunication Accessibility • Images, lights and text on the phone displays cannot be read • Solution – Provide text to speech alternative to access this information • Web Accessibility - Images on web pages must be described • Solution - Provide alternative text for images • Assistive Technologies • Screen readers • JAWS • Windows Eyes • Refreshable Braille Displays • Binaural headsets

  9. Low Vision • Definition • Some degree of visual perception with visual acuity less than 20/200 • Example Challenges • Hardware Accessibility - Device display text may be to small to read • Solution – Provide the ability to use a computer screen to display phone information • Software Accessibility - Foreground and background colors may not provide sufficient contrast • Solution – Provide foreground and background color that provide good contrast • Solution – Provide users the ability to control screen contrast • Assistive Technologies • Screen magnifiers • ZoomText • Magic

  10. Mobility • Definition • Individuals that have some limitation of movement • Example Challenges • Web Accessibility - Closely spaced controls may be difficult to activate • Solution – Provide layouts with sufficient spacing between controls • Software Accessibility - Requirements to press multiple keys simultaneously • Solution – Ensure software does not require multiple controls to be pressed at the same time • Assistive Technologies • Head Pointers • Allow individuals without fine motor control to control a pointer on the screen • Voice Recognition Software • Allows individuals without fine motor control to control a computer and dictate using the voice • Onscreen keyboards • Allow for alternate methods of entering keystrokes

  11. Speech • Definition • Individuals with speech disabilities may lack the ability or have a difficultly producing speech • Example Challenges • Telecommunication Accessibility - Voice enabled IVR systems will not be accessible • Solution – Provide alternative navigation methods for IVR trees • Assistive Technologies • Speech Completion Devices • Voice communications may be facilitated through a TTY device

  12. Auditory • Definition • Individuals with hearing disabilities may lack the ability or have a difficultly hearing • Example Challenges • Telecommunication Accessibility – Phone systems with prompts will not be accessible • Solution – Provide alternative navigation methods for prompt trees to work with TTY/TDD devices • Assistive Technologies • Show sounds tools • Voice communications may be facilitated through a TTY device

  13. Cognitive • Definition • Individuals with cognitive disabilities have some form of impairment of the cognitive process • Cognitive disabilities span a wide variety of disability types including • Developmental Disabilities • Dyslexia • Example Challenges • Web Accessibility - Foreground and background color combinations can make reading controls, displays and printed instructions difficult • Solution – Provide users with a variety of contrast settings • Software Accessibility - Animation can distract users and hinder reading • Solution – Avoid the use of animation within applications • Documentation Accessibility - Prompts and instructions written with complex or unclear language can be difficult to understand • Solution – Utilize the simplest language possible to describe a given issue • Assistive Technologies • Reading Systems • Combination of text to speech and visual page tracking • Used by individuals with dyslexia to ease process of reading

  14. Age Related Disabilities • The incidence rates for disabilities increase as people grow older • At least 52% of people 65 and older have one disability • Web use and computer penetration in the 65 and older population is growing • The aging baby boomer population makes heavy use of EIT including the Web

  15. Disability Population Statistics • US Disability Facts • About 49.7 million Americans have disabilities • Roughly one in six people in the US population • Mobility and Sensory Disabilities • 21.2 million have a mobility disability • 9.3 million have a sensory disability involving sight or hearing • Blindness • 3.3 million Americans are blind • By 2020 5.5 million Americans will be blind • European Disability Facts • 50M Europeans have disabilities • Similar incidence rates and as within the US population • International Disability Facts • Global disabled population is estimated at 600M • Large proportion of this is in emerging markets that may not yet have well developed disability laws

  16. Laws and Regulations

  17. Laws and Regulations Section Objectives | Knowledge Requirements • Section Objectives – Understand the various different regulations relating to accessibility • Knowledge Requirements • Be familiar with the legal accessibility requirements • Understand requirements of ADA and Section 508 in the US

  18. Laws and Regulations • Various different laws govern accessibility • Laws cover • International Requirements • E.U. Requirements • Domestic Requirements • U.S. • U.K. • Japan

  19. Regulatory Standards • Various different countries have EIT accessibility legislation • International Requirements • A variety of international standards bodies have work relating to accessibility • These standards have no direct legal authority but are generally related to domestic standards • European Union Requirements • The eAccessibility working group defines general EU accessibility policies • Member states may have additional domestic requirements, most notably the United Kingdom’s Disability Discrimination Act • United States Requirements • Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act • Section 255 of the Telecommunication Act • The American’s with Disabilities Act (ADA) • Japan Requirements • Japan has specific requirements under the Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS)

  20. International Standards • A variety of different international standards making bodies have active EIT related accessibility work • These standards are utilized as the basis for most domestic standards • Relevant Organizations Include • World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) • International Standards Organization (ISO) • Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) • Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) • International Telecommunications Union (ITU) • Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES) • International Committee for Information Technology Standards (INCITS)

  21. International Standards • WAI – Web Accessibility Initiative • The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) developed the Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) in an effort to pursue global Web accessibility. The WAI ensures that Web technologies provide support for accessibility by including guidelines for accessibility and evaluating the accessibility of Web sites • The WAI produces the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) a broad set of best practices for producing web content • The WCAG form the basis of most Web Accessibility standards including Section 508 and EU standards

  22. EU Requirements EU eAccessibility Guidance • The European Union (EU) Council issued the Resolution on eInclusion and eAccessibility, which built on several previous resolutions regarding accessibility • i2010 targets the year 2010 as the date for the EU member states to require accessibility as part of all public sector and certain private sector EIT procurements • EU accessibility regulations are likely to require a higher degree of accessibility than US regulations

  23. U.S. Requirements • Hearing Aid Compatibility Act of 1988 • Requires the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to ensure that all telephones manufactured or imported for use in the United States after August 1989 are hearing aid compatible • Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 • Permits people with disabilities to file civil lawsuits in order to obtain “reasonable accommodation” • Use of accessible telecommunications in the workplace allows conformance with ADA standards • Section 255,Telecommunications Act of 1996 • Empowers the Federal Communications Commission to require disability access provisions in telecom equipment and services • Section 508, Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (As amended in 1998) • Adds specific accessibility requirements to Federal procurement regulations

  24. Section 508 Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1998 • Section 508 is a US Federal law requiring Electronic and Information Technology developed, purchased, used, and maintained by the Federal government to be accessible to people with disabilities • Required for all US Federal government purchases of EIT • While directly applicable only to US Federal government Section 508 has been adopted as a best practice for procurement by most US public sector organizations

  25. Section 508 Covered Procurement Types • Technical Systems • Software applications and operating systems • Web-based information or applications • Telecommunications products • Video or multi-media products • Self contained, closed products such as office equipment and kiosks • Desktop and notebook computers • Services • Documentation • Support • Training

  26. Section 508 General Exceptions • National Security and Intelligence - §1194.3 (a) • Cryptologic devices • Command and control devices • Weapons systems • Incidental Use - §1194.3 (b) • Tools procured by a contractor incidental to delivery of a contract • For example, a contractor may procure a non-compliant HTML editor to help deliver a Section 508 compliant web site to the agency • Assistive Technology Availability - §1194.3 (c) • Agency does not have to install assistive technology on all workstations; only those used by individuals with disabilities • Location Specific - §1194.3 (d) • Information or service is not required at an alternate location • For example, if claims benefits require a claimant to be present at a particular location to file a claim, this requirement is acceptable under Section 508 • Micro Purchases • Purchases on government purchase cards prior to October 1, 2004 are exempt

  27. Section 508 Specific Exceptions • Equivalent Facilitation • EIT may provide equivalent facilitation for any Section 508 requirement • If a design or technology supplies equivalent or greater access in a manner different than what is defined in Section 508, it can be used • Allows for technology and design solutions not currently considered in Subpart B – Technical Standards • Equivalent facilitation compared to usability standards in Subpart C • Examples • A self voicing application that does not work with a screen reader • An auxiliary input device customized for a person with a mobility impairment

  28. Section 508 Specific Exceptions • Undue Burden • If achieving compliance represents a significant hardship or expense, an agency can claim “undue burden” • Undue burden is only considered significant if it affects the entire agency’s resources • External v. Internal Undue Burden • An internal undue burden may exist for legacy applications that will not be brought into compliance • Undue burdens must be documented including: • Nature of the burden • Portions of Section 508 requirements posing the burden • If an undue burden occurs, an alternative means of providing information or data must be provided • Commercial Non-Availability • Commercial non-availability means that a compliant product is not available on the market • Requires that all available products are non-compliant • Agency cannot claim non-availability if products fail to fully meet requirements • Agency must acquire most compliant product • If agency claims non-availability, non-compliant portions should be documented similar to undue burden • Examples • A partially compliant software system is the only system available that meets the functional requirements

  29. Section 508 Specific Exceptions • Specific Exceptions • Fundamental Alteration • Products or features that would require a fundamental alteration to become compliant are exempt • Fundamental alteration is defined as an alteration that would affect basic function of the product • Examples • PDA’s requiring text to speech readers • Pagers requiring Braille displays • Claims primarily relate to hardware

  30. Section 508 Back Office Exceptions • EIT is considered to be back office if it is • Located in a limited access or secure area frequented solely by service personnel • Used by service personnel for repair, maintenance, or occasional monitoring • EIT products fall under this exception only if they are physically accessed from a back office location cannot be accessed remotely • For example, if they are usable only in the limited access or secure area • Examples • A telecommunications switch located in a network closet • A non-configurable network switch • Note - EIT web based and desktop administration tools are not generally considered exempt under the back office exemption • These interfaces do need to be made compliant

  31. U.S. Requirements Americans with Disabilities Act • The ADA prevents employers with more than 15 employees from basing employment decisions on the basis of disability. The ADA applies to employment, state and local government, public accommodations, commercial facilities, transportation, telecommunications, and the U.S. Congress • Application of the ADA to the Internet is still unclear • High profile sites have been sued for non-compliance with the ADA • District court location regulates whether ADA to the Internet • Prudent estimates assume the ADA applies

  32. U.K. Requirements Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) – United Kingdom • In 1995, the United Kingdom passed the Disability Discrimination Act (DDA), making it unlawful to provide lower-quality service to people with disabilities • In 1999 the DDA required companies to make "reasonable adjustments" to services in order to provide accessibility • Among other requirements this necessitates that user EIT systems and work environment be accessible

  33. Japan Requirements JIS X 2004:8341 – Japan • Japan does not have any regulations similar to the ADA or DDA, so there is no basis for legal control or enforcement of accessibility. However, design guidelines that focus on providing accessibility to people with disabilities in IT systems have been developed in Japan. Specifically, standards for EIT were released in 2004 as part of the Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS X 2004:8341). The Japanese government has encouraged organizations with a presence in Japan to adopt these standards.

  34. Assistive Technologies

  35. Assistive Technologies • Definition • Assistive technologies are devices, software or techniques used to assist a individuals with disabilities in the use (or access) of something • Examples: • Screen readers & magnifiers • Onscreen or other special keyboards • Wheelchairs • TTY devices • Canes • Refreshable Braille displays

  36. Accessibility • Definition - The degree to which EIT can be accessed by people with disabilities • EIT can meet legal standard such as Section 508 compliance but may still not be accessible to people who are disabled.

  37. Screen Readers and Magnifiers

  38. Screen Readers and Magnifiers Section Objectives | Knowledge Requirements • Section Objectives • Understand commonly used screen readers and magnifiers • Understand responsibility of organizations with respect to screen readers and magnifiers • Knowledge Requirements • Understand how screen readers and magnifiers work • Understand the impact of screen readers and magnifiers on EIT systems

  39. Screen Readers and Magnifiers Overview • Screen readers and screen magnifiers are the most common types of assistive technology used by visually impaired users • Screen readers function by reading the contents of a computer screen • Screen magnifiers function by magnifying portions of the screen

  40. Screen Readers • Definition - Computer programs that use Text To Speech (TTS) technology to read the contents of the computer screen aloud to a blind or visually impaired user • Screen readers may also be referred to as TTS systems or by brand names • Screen readers provide functionality for reading screen contents and keyboard based input commands to replace visually dependant input devices such as the mouse • Examples • JAWS for Windows by Freedom Scientific • Window-Eyes by GW-Micro • Microsoft Narrator (built in to Windows 2000 and later)

  41. JAWS for Windows • JAWS for Windows, commonly referred to simply as JAWS, is the most popular screen reader on the market • JAWS has over 85% market share by most estimates • JAWS provides TTS output using a computer’s sound card or an external dedicated speech synthesizer • JAWS supports refreshable Braille displays • JAWS provides a scripting language for assisting in making inaccessible applications accessible • Add prompts • Change the tab order • Provide hotkeys to access critical elements • Provide context sensitive help

  42. Window-Eyes • Window-Eyes is the second most popular screen reader on the market • Window-Eyes provides speech output through computer’s sound card or optional speech synthesizer • Supports refreshable Braille displays • Supports customization through the use of SET files

  43. Screen Magnifiers Overview • Screen Magnifiers enlarge the contents of the screen allowing users with low vision to read printed information and see images and other information clearly. • Magnification levels from 1.2x to 16x typically supported • May also include limited screen reader functionality to supplement magnification • Image & color manipulation functions provided to render images easier to see

  44. ZoomText and Magic • ZoomText • Most popular screen magnifier • Provides large range of magnification levels • Offers color replacement, removal and manipulation to enhance image contrast • Offers optional screen reader component to supplement magnification • Magic • Second most popular screen magnifier • Tight integration with JAWS • Provides similar magnification and image manipulation functionality to ZoomText • Provides very basic screen reader functionality • Users encouraged to use JAWS

  45. Special Considerations • Screen Reader and Magnifier Special Considerations • Screen Readers and Magnifiers will utilize a Display Chain Manager (DCM) to install a special video driver to intercept screen contents • Any software that changes or manipulates the display driver may cause problems • GDI+ and DirectX applications are not supported by Screen Readers/Magnifiers and may cause a system crash if used while they are active • Self-Voicing programs that use the SAPI interface may interfere with the speech functions of a screen reader or may fail to operate when a screen reader is active

  46. Accessibility Management Platform (AMP)

  47. What does AMP do? • Accessibility Management Platform • Audits • The primary set of functionality within AMP is designed to manage all accessibility testing and reporting work in one location: AMP itself. Auditing staff can manage the systems they're testing in AMP, create their reports for those systems (a group of reports) within AMP, perform automatic, manual, and use case tests within AMP, and generate their reports using AMP. Stakeholders, developers, and system owners can all access and review the results directly within AMP as well. • Standards Management • AMP manages compliance with accessibility standards through what are known as "Best Practices". The cornerstone of the AMP system is the use of a best-practice-based approach to compliance which reduces the industry standards into a series of conformance criteria we call Best Practices – adherence to these best practices leads to conformance with the standards. We'll see a description of that later • Training • Every user of AMP is also given access to a series of online training courses available from within AMP itself which cover a variety of topics ranging from "Accessibility Overview" to Accessibility training on advanced Flash and Flex topics.

  48. AMP Best Practices • What is a Best Practice? • For each industry SSB's consulting staff have dissected the individual provisions of relevant accessibility standards into conformance criteria we call Best Practices. Using Section 508 as an example, we've determined – for each individual provision within Section 508 – what it truly means to conform to that standard. Following the best practices lead to conformance. • Every licensed user of AMP has access to all of the best practices that map to a wide variety of accessibility standards and technology platforms

  49. AMP Best Practices • Best Practice Organization • Best practices are organized based on the technology platform that they correspond to. • This organization makes it easy to quickly find the appropriate best practice based on the technology platform that the user is currently working with. • The following is a list of the available technology platforms: • Web • Adobe Flash/Flex • Adobe Acrobat PDF • Adobe LiveCycle • Java Software • Multimedia • Windows Native Software • Macintosh Software • Hardware • Telecom • Support

  50. InFocus • InFocus Overview • InFocus is a tool which uses a series of checkers to perform automated diagnostics that determine accessibility and compliance based on a variety of accessibility standards. • InFocus makes it easy to follow the violations found on your site or files by highlighting the line(s) of HTML code corresponding to each violation. • InFocus also allows for easy use, understanding, and correction of violations to your web site, Intranet, local web development directory or file. • InFocus is a desktop application designed in a manner consistent with Windows-compatible programs, and should be easy to use by people familiar with PCs and typical graphical user interfaces. • InFocus can be launch from the browser and does not require a lengthy installation.