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Ethics In Computing Aimee Shirreffs Kevin Silver Jin Zhang
Introduction • Ethics: The branch of philosophy dealing with morality, distinguishing between right & wrong. • Derived from: • “Ethos”-character in Greek • “mores”-customs in Latin
Topics • Aimee: Electronic Medical Records Unsecured Wireless Networks • Kevin: Spyware Sony Rootkit • Jin: International Ethics Hacking
Electronic Medical Records • EMR: A medical record stored and accessed in digital format Past, Present & Future EMR’s • Failed Icelandic project • Alberta Netcare, Canada • The NHS centralised EMR begins uploading data in 2007
Electronic Medical Records • Ethical Issues arise due to: • Conflicting opinions between individuals and groups in society • Concern over who can and who will have access to an EMR • Patient consent and the apparent lack of empowerment it offers Sources include The Guardian, Journal of Medical Research, Financial Times
Unsecured Wireless Networks • The advent of Wi-Fi technology has created new opportunities and new concerns • Alarmingly, approximately 80% of US residential Wireless Networks will be classified as “unsecure” in 2007 • Current laws are not in place, so we must be guided by ethics…
Unsecured Wireless Networks • Ethical dilemmas relate to: • Wardrivers & wardriving • Wireless “piggybackers” • The differing opinions between individuals and these groups of their conducts • The difficulty of defining where the boundary lies between ethics and the law in new technologies Sources include zdnet.com, NY Times, online news articles & blogs
Hacking • What is Hacking? • Why Hack? • Challenge • Desire Money • Steal Information • Destroy Systems
Hacking • Hacker Types • White Hats • Ethical Hackers • Opposed to abuse of Computer Systems • Hack Systems to illuminate flaws • Black Hats • Criminal Hackers • Promote freedom and accesibility • Grey Hats • Release information about security holes to public • Do so indiscriminately and without regard to consequences • Ethically between Black and White
International Ethics America vs China Similarities: • Chat Room Content • Theft • Piracy • Differences • Pornography • Legitimate Market in America • Completely illegal in China • Internet Café • No under 18’s in china • Online Gambling • Illegal in China
Spyware/Adware • Spyware: • Computer software that collects personal information about a user without their informed consent. • Term is used interchangably with malware • Adware: • any software package which automatically plays, displays, or downloads advertising material to a computer after the software is installed on it or while the application is being used.
Spyware/Adware • Ethical issues • Adware • Not necessarily considered malware • Should companies be allowed to advertise in this way? • Inconvenience for users • Spyware • Commonly considered malware • Businesses use hidden spyware in their products for advertising – Right or wrong?
Sony Rootkit • Rootkit: • A rootkit is a set of software tools used by a third party after gaining access to a computer system. These tools conceal running processes, files or system data, which helps maintain access to a system without the user’s knowledge. • Serves to conceal malicious software such as spyware
Sony Rootkit • 2005 Sony BMG CD copy protection scandal “We will develop technology that transcends the individual user. We will firewall Napster at source - we will block it at your cable company, we will block it at your phone company, we will block it at your [ISP]. We will firewall it at your PC...These strategies are being aggressively pursued because there is simply too much at stake.” Sony Pictures Entertainment US senior VP Steve Heckler • Sony installed software as a Copy Protection measure • Left computers vulnerable to virus/hacker attack