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INTERPERSONAL DECEPTION THEORY. A Communication Perspective: Interpersonal Deception Theory. Views communicators as active and strategic rather than passive and reactive Focuses on communication processes as well as internal psychological influences Recognizes partner influence on behavior

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a communication perspective interpersonal deception theory
A Communication Perspective: Interpersonal Deception Theory
  • Views communicators as active and strategic rather than passive and reactive
  • Focuses on communication processes as well as internal psychological influences
  • Recognizes partner influence on behavior
  • Views communication as dynamic and iterative rather than static

MIS 429/529

assumptions of idt
ASSUMPTIONS OF IDT
  • about interpersonal communication
  • about deception

MIS 429/529

interpersonal communication assumptions
Interpersonal Communication Assumptions
  • Sender & receiver
    • Are active, not passive
    • Interdependent/mutually influencing
  • Communication is
    • goal-oriented & strategic
    • multifunctional, multidimensional, & multimodal
    • dynamic
    • adaptive
    • judged on credibility

MIS 429/529

deception assumptions
Deception Assumptions
  • Deception is strategic
  • Deception is more cognitively demanding than truthtelling

MIS 429/529

propositions

PROPOSITIONS

MIS 429/529

proposition 1 role of context
Proposition 1: Role of Context

Context features of deceptive interchanges that systematically affect sender and receiver cognitions and behaviors are

(a) the interactivity of the medium and

(b) the demands of the conversational task.

MIS 429/529

proposition 2 role of relationship
Proposition 2: Role of Relationship

Deceiver and receiver thoughts, feelings, and behaviors vary systematically with:

(a) relational familiarity and

(b) relational valence.

MIS 429/529

proposition 3 strategic activity
Proposition 3: Strategic Activity

Deceivers engage in both strategic and nonstrategic activity. Compared with truthtellers, deceivers exhibit

(a) More strategic activity to manage

(1) information content of messages (2) associated nonverbal behavior (3) overall image

(b) Nonstrategic activity that reveals

(1) arousal

(2) negative or dampened affect

(3) depressed involvement

(4) impaired speech

MIS 429/529

sample strategic verbal manipulations
Sample Strategic Verbal Manipulations

QUESTION: How many brothers and sisters do you have?

100% TRUTHFUL: I have 3 brothers and 3 sisters.

FABRICATION: I'm an only child.

EQUIVOCATION: No matter how many of us were around, I always felt like an only child.

CONCEALMENT: I have 3 brothers.

MIS 429/529

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Sample Strategic Verbal Manipulations

QUESTION: How strong are your computer skills?

100% TRUTHFUL: I used a computer only in my life to write a short letter.

FABRICATION: I use a computer often to write letters, do accounting, and records.

EQUIVOCATION: I suppose they are stronger than some people's but one can always learn more.

CONCEALMENT: I have used a computer.

MIS 429/529

example of strategic and nonstrategic activity
Example of Strategic and Nonstrategic Activity

What are her goals here?

What does she do that might qualify as strategic?

What nonstrategic behavior does she exhibit? Notice her gestures (e.g., the shrug gesture), her voice (.e.g., response latencies, nonfluencies, softness, rising intonation, glottal fry) , word choice

MIS 429/529

strategic information management deceivers modify
Strategic Information management—deceivers modify:
  • Message content
    • less truthful
    • less complete
    • less clear
    • less relevant
  • Language style
    • more qualifiers
    • less immediacy
  • Syntax
  • Discourse
    • repeated questions

MIS 429/529

strategic behavior management deceivers modify
Strategic behavior management—deceivers modify:
  • Apparent normalcy
    • Follow conversational norms
    • Avoid deviant or unusual behavior
  • Submissiveness
  • Involvement
  • Suppression of nervousness

MIS 429/529

strategic image management deceivers modify
Strategic image management—deceivers modify:
  • Apparent culpability
  • Pleasantness
  • Overall credibility of demeanor

MIS 429/529

proposition 4 effects of interactivity
Proposition 4: Effects of Interactivity

The more interactive the communication context, the more deceivers increase strategic activity and reduce nonstrategic activity over time.

MIS 429/529

proposition 5 expectations of truthfulness
Proposition 5: Expectations of Truthfulness

Higher expectations that a sender is truthful are positively associated with

(a) Interactive contexts and

(b) positively toned relationships.

MIS 429/529

proposition 6 fear of detection
Proposition 6: Fear of Detection
  • Deceivers’ fear of detection is inversely related to
    • higher expectations that a sender is truthful
    • amount of strategic activity.

MIS 429/529

proposition 7 goals motivations
Proposition 7: Goals & Motivations

Goals and motivations moderate strategic and nonstrategic behavior.

(a) Senders deceiving for self-gain exhibit more strategic and non-strategic behavior than deceiving for other-benefit.

(b) Receivers’ initial behavior is influenced by (1) their priorities among instrumental, relational and identity goals

(2) their initial intent to uncover deceit.

MIS 429/529

proposition 8 role of familiarity
Proposition 8: Role of Familiarity
  • As receivers’ informational, behavioral and relational familiarity increase
    • (a) Deceiver fear of detection increases
    • (b) Deceiver strategic information, behavior and image management increases
    • (c) Deceiver nonstrategic activity increases

MIS 429/529

proposition 9 role of skill
Proposition 9: Role of Skill
  • Relative to unskilled deceivers, skilled deceivers better convey a truthful demeanor by controlling
    • strategic activity
    • nonstrategic leakage

MIS 429/529

proposition 10 credibility
Proposition 10: Credibility

Deceivers are seen as more credible when

(a) receivers hold truth biases,

(b) contexts are more interactive,

(c) senders are more skilled communicators, and

(d) senders deviate less from expected communication patterns.

MIS 429/529

proposition 11 accuracy
Proposition 11: Accuracy

Receivers are more accurate in detecting deception when

(a) receivers do not hold truth biases,

(b) contexts are noninteractive,

(c) senders are unskilled encoders,

(d) receivers are familiar with senders,

(e) receivers are skilled decoders, and

(f) senders deviate from expected communication patterns.

MIS 429/529

proposition 12 suspicion
Proposition 12: Suspicion

Receivers reveal their suspicions through

(a) strategic and

(b) nonstrategic behavior.

MIS 429/529

proposition 13 awareness of suspicion
Proposition 13: Awareness of Suspicion

Senders perceive suspicion when it is present through

(a) deviations from expected receiver behavior

(b) receiver signals of suspicion

(c) receiver uncertainty

(d) receivers seeking more information

MIS 429/529

proposition 14 effects of suspicion on sender behavior
Proposition 14: Effects of Suspicion on Sender Behavior
  • Suspicion (perceived or actual) increases sender
    • strategic activity
    • nonstrategic activity

MIS 429/529

proposition 15 temporal changes
Proposition 15: Temporal Changes

Deception and suspicion displays change over time.

MIS 429/529